Bio I Final #2 Vocab

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Bio I Final #2 Vocab
2012-05-19 11:10:43
Bio Final Vocab

Bio I Final #2 Vocab
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  1. genetics (11)
    the key to understanding what makes each organism unique
  2. trait (11)
    specific charactgeristic
  3. gene (11)
    the factors passed on from parent to offspring
  4. alleles (11)
    differnet forms of a gene
  5. segregation (11)
    seperation of alleles
  6. gamets (11)
    sex cells
  7. phenotype (11)
    physical makeup
  8. genotype (11)
    genetic makeup
  9. incomplete dominance (11)
    when one allele is not complete dominant over another (red and white flower = pink flower)
  10. codominence (11)
    both phenotypes are clearly expressed
  11. homologous (11)
    2 sets of chromosomes that come from father (2) and mother (2)
  12. diploid (11)
    a cell that contains both sets of homologous chromosomes
  13. haploid (11)
    cells containing only one set of chromosomes
  14. tetrad (11)
    In prophase I replicated chromosomes pair up with corrosponding homologous chrmosomes
  15. zygote (11)
    a fertilized egg
  16. transformation (12)
    having the ability to cause disease by inheriting it from a parent
  17. bacteriophage (12)
    virus that infects bacteria
  18. replication (12)
    duplication of DNA
  19. DNA polymerase (12)
    enzyme that joins individual nucleotides to produce a new strand of DNA
  20. RNA (13)
    like DNA, a nucleic acid that consits of a long chain of nucleotides
  21. messenger RNA (mRNA) (13)
    carries copies of instructions for assembling amino acids into proteins
  22. ribosomal RNA (rRNA) (13)
    proteins are assembled on ribosomes, small orgenells made of two subunits (rRNA)
  23. transfer RNA (tRNA) (13)
    transfers amino acids to the ribosome to make a protein
  24. transcription (13)
    segments of DNA serve as a template to produce complimentary RNA molecules
  25. RNA polymerase (13)
    enzyme needed for transcription
  26. prometers (13)
    regions of DNA that have specific base sequences
  27. introns (13)
    portions of pre-mRNA pieces cut out before being "read"
  28. exons (13)
    the pieces of pre-mRNA that are left to be "read"
  29. polypeptides (13)
    long chains of amino acids
  30. genetic code (13)
    A, C, G, U/T used for bases in DNA/RNA
  31. codon (13)
    the three letter "word" in mRNA
  32. translation (13)
    decoding of mRNA
  33. anticodon (13)
    each tRNA molecule has 3 unpaired bases
  34. gene expression (13)
    the way DNA, RNA, and proteins are imvolved in putting genetic info into action in living things
  35. polyploidy (13)
    a condition in which an organism gas an extra set of chrmosomes
  36. operon (13)
    a group of genes that are regulated together
  37. operator (O) (13)
    the O site is where a DNA-binding protein known as the lac repressor can bind to DNA
  38. homeobox genes (13)
    regulates organs that develop in soecific partsof the body
  39. homeobox genes (13)
    base DNA sequence that codes for transcription factors that activate other genes that are inportant in cell development
  40. genome (14)
    a full set of genetic information that an organism carries in its DNA
  41. karyotype (14)
    pics of chromosomes cut out and arranged in a picture
  42. autosomes (14)
    the other 44 non sex chromosomes
  43. sex chromosomes (14)
    2 of the 46 chromosomes that determine the organisms sex
  44. sex-linked gene (14)
    gene located on a sex chromosome
  45. pedrigee (14)
    a chart that shows the presence or absence of a trait according to the relationship between parents, siblings, and offspring
  46. nondisjunction (14)
    when homologous chromosomes fail to seperate during meiosis
  47. restriction enzymes (14)
    enzymes that cut DNA into smaller pieces to be analyzed
  48. gel electrophoresis (14)
    technique used by scientists to seperate and analyze differently sized fragments
  49. bioinformatics (14)
    research area of the Human Genome Project
  50. genomics (14)
    the study of the whole genomes, including their genes and their functions
  51. hybridization (15)
    crossing dissimilar plants
  52. inbreeding (15)
    continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics
  53. biotechnology (15)
    the application of a technology process, invention, or method to living organisms
  54. polymerase chain reaction (15)
    a method scientists use to make copies of a gene
  55. recombinant DNA (15)
    a gene taken from one organism and attached to another organsims DNA
  56. plasmids (15)
    small circular DNA carried by some bacteria
  57. genetic marker (15)
    a gene that makes it possible to distinguish bacteria that carry the plasmid from those that don't
  58. transgenic (15)
    containg genes from other species
  59. gene therapy (15)
    the process of changing a gene to treat a medical disease or disorder
  60. DNA microarray (15)
    technology to study hundreds or even thousands of genes at once to understand thair activity levels
  61. DNA fingerprinting (15)
    a tool used to identify individuals
  62. foensics (15)
    the scientific study of crime scene evidence
  63. evolution (16)
    the process of change over time
  64. artificial selection (16)
    humans selection traits they like
  65. adaptation (16)
    any heritable characteristic that increases and organism's ability to survive and reproduce in its environment
  66. fitness (16)
    how well and organism can survive and reproduce
  67. natural selection (16)
    the process by which organisms with variations most suited to their local environment survive and leave more offspring
  68. homologous structures (16)
    stuctures unherited from a common ancestor
  69. analogous structures (16)
    body parts that share a common function, but not structure
  70. vestigial structures (16)
    stuctures inherited from an ancestor but has lost most if not all of its original function
  71. directional selection (17)
    when individuals at one end of the curve have a higher fitness then the rest
  72. stabalizing selection (17)
    the center of the curve has a higher fitness than the rest
  73. disruptive selection (17)
    when the outer ends are more fit than the ones in the middle
  74. 5 traits of genetic equilibrium (17)
    • 1. random mating
    • 2. large population
    • 3. no mutations
    • 4. no gene flow (migration)
    • 5. no natural selection
  75. sexual selection (17)
    how mates are selected based on heritable traits
  76. speciation (17)
    the formation of a new species