clinical med 1

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clinical med 1
2012-05-19 19:12:17
clinical med

clinical med 1
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  1. agenesis
    absensce of an organ
  2. hypoplasia
    incomplete development
  3. involution failures
    presistence of fetal structures that should involute
  4. translocation (the structural chromosomal abnormality)
    exchange of chromosomal segments btwn non-homologous chromosomes
  5. single gene abnormalities
    • defects/mutations that follow one of three patterns of inheritance:
    • 1 - autosomal dominant (marfran)
    • 2 - autosomal recessive (phenyketonuria)
    • 3 - x linked inheritance (hemophilia)
  6. polygenic inheritance
    • aka multifactorial inheritance - it's a disease process caused by a bunch of screwy genes and env factors
    • often runs in families
  7. trisomy of chromosome 21 causes...?
    down syndrome
  8. horizontal transmission of infection
    the two flavors
    • horizontal: peer to peer
    • 1) direct spread - via exposure to the sick person
    • 2) indirect - via exposure to dirty water, food, or soil
  9. vertical transmission of infection
    2 flavors
    • from mom to tot
    • a) prenatal (rubella)
    • b) perinatal (heb b)
  10. anyone can be exposed to a disease. to get sick, what two factors must be in line?
    the virulence of the infectious agent and the resistance of the host
  11. 4 types of inflammation a host can do in response to an infectious agent
    • exudative inflammation
    • necrotizing infl
    • chronic infl
    • granulmatosis infl
  12. viruses are the ___est human pathogens

    they consist of ___ or ___ in a ___

    RNA or DNA in a protein shell called a capsid
  13. why must viruses be such jerks?
    They're incapable of independant metabolism or reproduction, so they have to be parasites, often to the detriment of the host.
  14. sex lives of viruses
    the 4 steps
    • 1 - attach to cell
    • 2 - penetrate it
    • 3 - uncoat/shed the capsid (during penetration)
    • 4 - replicate - DNA in nucleus, RNA in cytoplasm
  15. viremia
    presence of virus in bloodstream - viruses, except for some respiratory viruses, travel this way
  16. basics of virus's effect on cells
    • viruses sometimes cause a disease by killing a cell
    • viruses sometimes cause a disease without killing the infectec cell
  17. influenza
    • viral respiratory disease
    • caused by the influenza viruses A and B
  18. measles (rubeola)
    • caused by RNA measles virus
    • highly contagious

    blue-gray spots with red areola appear on buccal membrane (inside cheeks), and an erithematosus maculopapular (reddish bump) rash spreads downard from the head, lasting about five days
  19. rubella
    mildly contagious viral RNA disease

    lymphadenopatha and a maculopapular rash, and conjuctivitis

    contraction give you lifelong immunity

    congenital is a mess, causing death or severe congenital defects
  20. mumps
    an acute generalized infection with a RNA virus

    parotitis, salvatory glands are swollen,

    can lead to meningitis, pancreatitis, orchitits (swollen balls)
  21. rotavirus

    spread by...?
    RNA virus

    horizontal spread by oral fecal route <rot... it's nasty>

    vomiting, fever, abdominal pain, diarrhea
  22. varicella
    chicken pox

    contagious (respiratory route) viral disease caused by varicella-zoster virus (herpes virus)
  23. herpes simplex
    caused by herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2
  24. infectious mononucleosis
    which virus causes it?
    caused by epstien-barr virus
  25. diffs between measles (rubeola), rubella, and mumps
    • measles/rubeola - highly contagious, incubation period of 10-21 days
    • rubella - mildly contagious, rash 3-5 days, big trouble if congenital
    • mumps - acute generalized infection, has more serious complications
  26. bacteria characteristics
    • unicelluar microorganis
    • has no nucleus
    • no endoplasmic reticulum
    • contains DNA and RNA
    • synthesizes proteins
  27. gram stain -- characteristic of bacteria cell that determines if it's gram neg/pos
    bacteria have diff tinctorial (gram stain) properties

    single layered cell wall - gram neg

    multi-layered cell wall - gram pos
  28. 3 groups of bacteria
    • cocci - rounded
    • bacilli - rod-shaped
    • spirochetes - spiral
  29. easy way to tell if Lipovak's bacteria is gram pos or gram neg
    if it starts with an s or c it's pos
  30. staphylococcus aureus - it's 4 basic effects
    • this bacteria is the most common cause of suppuration and abscess formation --
    • skin: pimples, boils, carbuncles,
    • joints : arthritis,
    • bones: osteomyelitis
    • leading cause of ineffective endocarditis

    sooo... staff infection = nasty skin, arthritis, osteomyelitis, ineffective endocarditis
  31. streptococcus pyogens
    it causes...2 not so serious, 1 serious?
    • Not so serious:
    • strep throat (infection of pharynx)
    • impetigo (skin infection)

    • More serious:
    • rheumatic fever
  32. streptococcus pneumoniae
    causes what 3 things?
    (not strep throat - that's from strept pyogens bacteria)

    • strep pneumonia causes...
    • pneumonia,
    • otitos media,
    • meningitist
  33. corynebacterium diphtheriae

    infection of upper respiratory tract - can lead to asphyxia or myocarditis

    (dip under water, you can't breath... respiratory problems)
  34. colstridium perfringens
    an anerobic spore forming bacilli

    causes food poisoning ---> diahrreaand can lead to necrotizing enteritis

    if it gets to a wound it can cause gas gangrene

    (if you don't close the fridge food can go bad...)
  35. colstridium tetani
    causes Tetanus

    a wound provides anaerobic conditions for the bacteria to grow. It produces exotoxin that pases along nerves to the spinal cord, where it makes a mess - lockjaw, opisthotonus, tirasmus, glotal spasms, convulsions (can cause death)
  36. opisthotonus def
    caused by what bacteria?
    super increased tone in back muscles, so you're intensely extended

    clostridium tetani
  37. triasmus
    caused by what bacteria
    • vision problems
    • clostridium tetani
  38. bordetella pertussis (gram neg)
    perusssis (whooping cough)

    usually in kids, after 7-14 days incubation, lots of coughing for abotu 4-5weeks)
  39. hemophilus influenze (gram neg)
    found where...?
    most common cause of ...?
    also causes...?
    • found in the nasopharynx
    • most common cause of meningitis in kids (causes more than neisseria meningitidis bc NM primarily hits kids under 5 yo)
    • also causes sinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, arthritis, epiglottitis...
  40. neisseria meningitidis (gram neg)
    causes...? symptoms...?
    spread by...?
    3 types...?
    pyogenic meningitits in wee kids - theyll have fever, headache, stiff neck

    spread by respiratory droplets

    <neiss - sounds like nice meningitis... see, it chats up kids, acting all nice, offers them candy, gets in, makes them sick. Why is it spread by respiratory droplets? Because sick kids are disgusting and basically spray respiratory droplets everywhere, so our nice meningitis is slick, or nice, like that, knowing how best to take advantage of kids's disgustingness for its own advantage>

    type A - main cause of epidemic, while B and C cause sporadic cases
  41. neisseria gonorrhoeae (gram neg)

    affects what organs?
    how it presents m/f?
    treat w...?
    • gonorhea - it affects the genitourinary organs
    • m - 3-5 days later there's purulent urethral discharge
    • f - less prominent symptoms
    • treat w penicillin - if you don't can lead to infections like salpingitis (infl of fallopian tubes)
  42. eschericia coli (gram neg)

    after salmonella it's the leading cause of ...?
    usually present where?
    problematic when?
    E. Coli

    enteropathogenic bacterial infections

    presnt in colons

    troube if it's in urinary tract or meninges

    some strains release endotoxins and cause serious intestinal disease
  43. which 3 bacteria are of the bacilli type?
    • clostridium perfringens
    • clostridium tetani

    haemophilus influeze (coccobacil)
  44. treponema pallidum
    which of the three types of bacteria is this?
    • spirochete
    • <causes syphillus, so it also has an S>
  45. treponema pallidum is ____ sensitive
  46. treponema pallidum causes ____
    • sexually transmitted syphilis
    • <screwing around is 'dum'>
  47. primary syphillis (caused by the ____ bacteria)

    primary syphillus features...?
    treponema pallidum

    primary: lesion at site of bacterial inoculation and inguinal lymphoadenopathy
  48. secondary syphilis
    secondary: systematic bacterial chronic infl w lesions in skin, meninges, liver...
  49. tertiary syphilis
    teritary: asymptomatic but w tissue necrosis happening (gumma lesions) - result of obstructive vascular lesions of small arteries
  50. 3 infections that are neither bacteria nor virus (they're enigmas, and they last for months)
    • chlamydia
    • rickettsia
    • mycoplasma
  51. how chlamydia, rickettsia, and mycoplasma differ from bacteria
    • tho they divide by binary fusion and are susceptible to antibiotics,
    • they lack certain structures or metabolic capabilities (ex: chlamidia can't synthesize ATP)
  52. chlamidia trachomatis
    • female sterility (by scarring and narrowing the fallopian tubes)
    • blindness by trachoma (chronic inflam of conjunctiva that evenutaly scars the cornea and makes it opaque)

    <Ellie has no kids, and her eye sight is lousy>
  53. rickettsia
    a group of ___ transmitted btwn mammals by ___
    they cause...?
    cool bit about them
    pathogens, by arthorpodes (insects)

    they're parasites that cause epidemic typhus, spotted fever, pneumonia, hepatitis, CNS injury, death

    they injur endothelial cells and cause hemorrhagic vasculitis
  54. mycoplasmas
    claim to fame
    how they spread
    what they cause
    • they're the tiniest known free living organisms
    • spread horizontally in aerosols and bind to surface of epithelial cells in airways
    • cause "walking pneumonia" <my cop tells me not to bike, that I should just walk, and this makes me sick>
    • (treat w antibiotics)
  55. fungi are the most plant-like of human pathogens bc they have thick cell wall, may have more than one form, and grow by extension and branching of filamentous structures.
    2 ways infections can appear in humans...?
    • 1) in superficial tissues - harmless, just in epidermis
    • 2) in deep organs and tissues - harmful
  56. protozoan parasites
    claim to fame
    • parasitic protozoa are motile
    • theis single-celled pthogen is amont the foremost causes of disease in developing countries
  57. trichomonas
    • the simplest protozoa <"homo" looks kind of like "proto">
    • sexually transmitted <turning tricks...>
  58. entamoeba histolytica
    an example of an intestinal protozoa - infectious when eaten
  59. protozoa that reside in blood cellsar are transmitted by ___
    • insects
    • ex: anopheles mosquido transmits plasmodia for malaria
  60. helmints
    basic def
    claim to fame
    • multicelluar worms that go for specific hosts
    • they create the biggest health problems worldwide <they make things hellish>
  61. 3 classes of helmints
    • 1 - nematodes (worms that stay in the instestines)
    • 2 - cestodes (flatworms - pork and beef) <beef and pork make me want to puke into a ces pool>
    • 3 - trematodes (water) <that show trema took place in NOLA by the water>