S1M1 micro

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Author:
sweetlu
ID:
154745
Filename:
S1M1 micro
Updated:
2012-05-25 14:23:22
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S1M1 micro
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S1M1 micro
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  1. ergosterol
    - fungal membrane sterol
  2. wet mounts
    • - fungal samples suspended in water or saline
    • - use alkali to dissolve backround material (KOH)
  3. G+
    • -PG cell wall contains teichoic and lipoteichoic acid (virulence factor)(role in autolysis)
    • - drier environments
    • - staph, strep, enterococcus, listeria, bacillus, clostridium, actinomyces
  4. G-
    - outer membrane- LPS (endotoxin) outer leaflet and phospholipid inner leaflet, capable of host mimcry and antigenic variation
  5. capsule
    • - tight, organized exopolysaccharide (glycocalyx)
    • - attached to PL of lipid A (toxic part of LPS)
    • - antiphagocytic
    • - K antigen used in serotyping
    • - vaccine target
  6. slime
    • - loose disorganized exopolysaccharide
    • - functions for adhesion to cells or surfaces
  7. S-layer
    • - protein of glycoprotein
    • - made from a single protein type
    • - bound to LPS or PG
    • - "armor" against enzyme, heavy metals, complement, etc
  8. pili/fimbriae
    • - short protein strands all over cell surface
    • - undergo antigenic variation
    • - adhesion, motility(eg Nisseria), conjugation
  9. flagellum
    • - 'H' antigen
    • - helical protein
    • - anchored to membrane(s)
    • - function in motility
  10. acid fast
    • - G+
    • - mycobacterium, corynebacterium and nocardia
    • - waxy mycolic acid b/t cell wall and capsule prevents gram staining
    • - resists chemical and some Abx
    • - Ziehl-Neelsen, Kinyoun and Auramine stains
  11. Mollicutes
    • - very small pleiomorphic structure
    • - can pass thru most filters
    • - membrane contains host derived sterols
    • - poor gram staining
    • - mycoplasma and ureaplasma
  12. spirochetes
    • G-
    • endoflagella (b/t PG and OM)
    • very thin (not visible with LM)
    • Treponema (syphillis), Borrelia (Lime) and Leptospira
  13. Chlamydiaceae
    • - OM with LPS, but no PG(cell wall)
    • - have cys- rich envelope proteins
    • - unreactive to gram stain
    • - Chlamydia, Chlamydophila
  14. LPS structure
    • - O- antigen: useful in serotyping, repeated oligosacch,
    • - Core oligosaccharide
    • - Lipid A: forms outer leaflet of OM, is the virulence factor, a highly conserved PAMP
    • G- bacteria only (and Chlamydiaceae)
  15. PG biosynth
    • 1- monomer production (NAG-NAM-pep) in cytoplasm
    • 2- bridge peptide (S. aureus has pentaglycine, some have no bridge)
    • 3- tranlocation and transglycosylation(incorporate monomer into PG), (bactoprenol-PP recycled)
    • 4- transpeptidation- cross linking
  16. B- lactams
    • - inhibit transpeptidases (step 4- cross linking)
    • - Penicillins and Cephalosporins
  17. Glycopeptides
    • prevent transpeptidation(step 3) and transglycosylation(step 4) by binding stem peptide D-ala-D-ala
    • Vancomycin
  18. bacitracin
    • prevents recycling of bactoprenol-PP (step 3)
    • affects syn of PG, LPS, capsules, teichoic acid, etc
    • Polysporin
  19. Fosfomycin
    inhibits MurA
  20. Cycloserine
    inhibits alanine racemase and D-ala-Dala sythetase
  21. Tunicamycin
    • nucleoside analog
    • prevents transfer of NAM-P to Und-P
  22. O-acetylation of PG
    • - inhibits lysozyme
    • - S. aureus, N. gonorrhoeae, P. mirabilis
  23. tetracyclin
    • - inhibit bacterial protein syn
    • - bind the 30S ribosomal s/u
    • - prevent tRNA attachment
  24. quinolones
    • - target topoisomerases
    • - Cipro
  25. sulfonamides, trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole
    • - target folate synthesis
    • - Bactrim
  26. rifampin
    - target RPol
  27. signal pepetidase
    • - cleaves off protein signal sites
    • - Type 1 ==> free protein
    • - Type 2 ==> anchored lipoprotein
  28. Type 1 secretion
    • Sec- independent hydrolytic ez and toxins
    • one step- no periplasmic intermediate
    • 3 dedicated proteins
    • - ABC- ATP binding cassette
    • - MFP- membrane fusion (bypasses periplasm)
    • - OM
  29. Type 2 secretion
    • Sec-dependent
    • periplasmic intermediate
    • used to get majority of proteins across OM
  30. Type 3 secretion
    • Sec- independent "injectosome"
    • one step
    • injection of toxins that alter host cell function
  31. Type 4 secretion
    • Sec-dependent (conjugative machinery)
    • can transfer into host cell or virulence factor to host receptor
    • can transport multimeric proteins, DNA
  32. Type 5 secretion
    • Sec-dependent
    • autotransporter (mediates its own transition thru OM)
    • protein makes channel and signal, cleaves off signal once thru
    • IC toxins
  33. sigma factors
    • - bind RPol and increase affinity/specificity of RPol for a promoter
    • - production is regulated by the environment allowing expression of specific genes
  34. antisense RNA
    - small RNA oligonucleotide that is complementary to an mRNA sequence which blocks its translation
  35. promoter, operator, repressor
    promoter is a stretch of untranslated DNA infront on genes that provides a place to RPol to recognize to start transcription. operator is a region inside the promoter where a repressor will bind to block transcription
  36. operon
    • -ie lac operon
    • - 2 or more cotranscribed genes controlled by one regulatory molecule/promoter
    • - polycistronic mRNA is produced that encodes multiple proteins
  37. regulon
    • multiple genes or operons under control of the same regulator
    • on different location of the chromosome
    • allow expression of genes to be used for different processes at different times
  38. stimulon
    • multiple genes, operons or regulons under control of the same stimuli via multiple regulators
    • all organism to react to an effect from multiple causes rather than one specific cause
  39. gene regulation
    • transcription initiation level- first point, more efficient (no E wasted making RNA that wont be used) promoters and repressors
    • translation- less effecient (antisense RNA)
    • post translation- fastest response and usually reversible

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