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  1. Simple Sentence aka An Independent Clause
    Contains a subject and a verb Expresses a complete thought Must contain a subject and verb Must express a complete thought Can contain multiple subjects or verbs.


    • Some students like to study in the mornings.
    • Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon.
    • Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.
  2. Compound Sentence
    • Contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator
    • Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma

    • Coordinators (spell FANBOYS)
    • for
    • and
    • no
    • but
    • or
    • yet
    • so

    • I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.
    • Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping.
  3. Periodic Sentence
    Sentence structure in whcih meaning of is delayed until the end, usually in the form of an independent clause

    Often contain a string of parrallel modifiers (string containing all same modifiers) followed by a main clause.


    • Propelled by my jet propulsion backpack, speeding past my
    • astonished parents, blasting through the limits of the atmosphere, and careening into the blackness of outer space, I imagined myself as the first astronaut
    • to orbit the earth without a space ship.

    In the almost incredibly brief time which it took the small but sturdy porter to roll a milk-can across the platform and bump it, with a clang, against other milk-cans similarly treated a moment before, Ashe fell in love.
  4. Culmulative Sentence aka Loose Sentence
    Main clause comes first followed by parallel modifiers (string of all the same modifiers)

    An independent clause followed by a series of subordinate constructions (phrases or clauses)

    Contrast with periodic sentence.


    • I still dream of traveling in space, floating through feathery
    • clouds, slipping past lone-flying birds, soaring towards the heavens, all while pitying the ground-dwellers below.

    • I write this at a wide desk in a pine shed as I always do these recent years, in this life I pray will last, while the summer sun closes the sky to Orion and to all the other winter stars over my roof.
    • (Annie Dillard, An American Childhood, 1987)
  5. Complex Sentence
    • Has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses
    • Always has a subordinator

    • Subordinators
    • since, after, although, or when or a relative
    • pronoun such as that, who, or which

    When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page.

    • The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.
    • The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
    • After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.
    • Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.
  6. Who vs. Whom  

    Rule of Thumb
    Use the he/him method to finish the sentence.
    he = who
    him = whom
    • Q: Who/Whom wrote the letter?
    • A: He wrote the letter.
    • who is correct.

    • Q: For who/whom should I vote?
    • A: I should vote for him.
    • whom is correct.

    • Q: We all know who/whom pulled that prank.
    • A: He pulled that prank.
    • who is correct.

    This sentence contains two clauses: We all know and who/whom pulled that prank. We are interested in the second clause because it contains the who/whom. 

    • Q: We want to know on who/whom the prank was pulled.
    • A: The prank was pulled on him.
    • whom is correct.

    This sentence contains two clauses: We want to know and the prank was pulled on who/whom. Again, we are interested in the second clause because it contains the who/whom.
  7. Lay vs Lie
    • Lay
    • Verb meaning to put or place somewhere
    • Takes a direct object
    • Parts are "lay, laid, laid, laying"

    • Examples
    • I lay the book on the table
    • Yesterday I laid the book on the table
    • I have laid the book on the table many times
    • I am laying the book on the table right now

    • Lie
    • Verb meaning to recline
    • Does NOT take a direct object
    • Parts are "lie, lay, lain, lying"

    • Examples
    • Every night I lie down
    • I lay down last night
    • I have lain down many times
    • I am lying down right now

    • Rule of Thumb
    • Substitute verb "to place" in place
    • If it makes sense, use "lay"
  8. Affect vs Effect
    • Affect (verb)
    • To have an effect on

    • Effect (noun)
    • Something that is brought about by a cause
  9. Ascent vs Assent
    • Ascent (noun)
    • A slope that angles upward

    • Assent (noun)
    • An agreement
  10. All Ready vs Already
    • All Ready (adj)
    • Everyone or everything is ready

    • Already (adverb)
    • By this time
  11. All Together vs Altogether
    • All Together (adj)
    • Everyone in a group

    • Altogether (adverb)
    • Entirely, completely
  12. Altar vs Alter
    • Altar (noun)
    • Structure used in worship

    • Alter (verb)
    • To change
  13.  Bear vs Bare
    • Bear (verb)
    • To carry or support

    • Bear (noun)
    • The animal that Stephen Colbert despises

    • Bare (verb)
    • To expose

    • Bare (adj)
    • Exposed
  14. Capital vs Capitol
    • Capital (noun)
    • A leading or governing body

    • Capitol (noun)
    • A building that houses a state's lawmaker's
  15. Cite vs Site
    • Cite (verb)
    • To use as an example
    • To quote

    • Site (noun)
    • A location
  16. Complement vs Compliment
    • Complement (noun)
    • An element that completes

    We had the full complement of pots and pans

    Our store does not have enough employees to work the required complement of hours.

    • Compliment (noun)
    • A remark of appreication or flattery

    • Compliment (verb)
    • To flatter
  17. Council vs Counsel
    • Council (noun)
    • Group of people brought together

    Members of the council are appointed for a period of three years.”

    • Counsel (noun or verb)
    • advice that is usually given formually
    • To give advice to someone

    A counsel was appointed for the defendant by the court

    The lawyer counseled her client on the matter brought to her attention
  18. Descent vs Dissent
    • Descent (noun)
    • A slope that angles downward
    • Situation where something is going from higher to lower (airplane)

    • Dissent (noun)
    • A disagreement
  19. Dying vs Dyeing
    • Dying (verb)
    • Ceasing to live

    • Dyeing (verb)
    • Coloring a fabric
  20. Forth vs Fourth
    • Forth (adverb)
    • Forward in place or time

    • Fourth (noun or adj)
    • Element after the third in sequence
  21. Principal vs Principle
    • Principal (noun)
    • Chief or leader

    • Principle (noun)
    • Belief or a rule of conduct
  22. Stationary vs Stationery
    • Stationary (adj)
    • Not moving or not capable of being moved

    • Stationery (noun)
    • Paper for writing letters
  23. Their vs They're vs There
    • Their (adj)
    • Belonging to them

    • They're (adj)
    • "They are" in contraction form

    • There (adj)
    • In that place
  24. To vs Too vs Two
    • To (preposition)
    • Indicates movement or intent

    • Too (adverb)
    • Also

    • Two (adj)
    • Somethig that has two units
  25. Whose vs Who's
    • Whose (adj)
    • Belong to whom

    • Who's (adj)
    • Contraction of "who is"
  26. Your vs You're
    • Your (adj)
    • Belonging to you

    • You're (adj)
    • Contraction of "you are"
  27. Ensure vs insure vs assure
    • Assure
    • to inform positively
    • to cause to be sure
    • Something you do to a person, a group of people, or an animal to remove doubt or anxiety.

    I assure you that I have been honest about the money I spent.

    • Ensure
    • To make sure or certain
    • Something you do to guarantee an event or condition

    Mauricio saved money from every paycheck to ensure he could buy gifts for his family at the end of the year.

    • Insure means
    • to provide insurance for
    • to have insurance for 

     I will insure my car as required by law.
  28. Then vs Than
    Then - Used to show sequence

    We had breakfast and then went ousideShe was just a child then

    Than - Used to compare things

    I am older than Steph
Card Set:
2012-09-17 15:23:52

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