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Simple Sentence aka An Independent Clause
Contains a subject and a verb Expresses a complete thought Must contain a subject and verb Must express a complete thought Can contain multiple subjects or verbs.
- Some students like to study in the mornings.
- Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon.
- Alicia goes to the library and studies every day.
- Contains two independent clauses joined by a coordinator
- Except for very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma
- Coordinators (spell FANBOYS)
- I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak English.
- Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping.
Sentence structure in whcih meaning of is delayed until the end, usually in the form of an independent clause
Often contain a string of parrallel modifiers (string containing all same modifiers) followed by a main clause.
- Propelled by my jet propulsion backpack, speeding past my
- astonished parents, blasting through the limits of the atmosphere, and careening into the blackness of outer space, I imagined myself as the first astronaut
- to orbit the earth without a space ship.
In the almost incredibly brief time which it took the small but sturdy porter to roll a milk-can across the platform and bump it, with a clang, against other milk-cans similarly treated a moment before, Ashe fell in love.
Culmulative Sentence aka Loose Sentence
Main clause comes first followed by parallel modifiers (string of all the same modifiers)
An independent clause followed by a series of subordinate constructions (phrases or clauses)
Contrast with periodic sentence.
- I still dream of traveling in space, floating through feathery
- clouds, slipping past lone-flying birds, soaring towards the heavens, all while pitying the ground-dwellers below.
- I write this at a wide desk in a pine shed as I always do these recent years, in this life I pray will last, while the summer sun closes the sky to Orion and to all the other winter stars over my roof.
- (Annie Dillard, An American Childhood, 1987)
- Has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses
- Always has a subordinator
- since, after, although, or when or a relative
- pronoun such as that, who, or which
When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page.
- The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error.
- The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow.
- After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies.
- Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.
Who vs. Whom
Rule of Thumb
Use the he/him method to finish the sentence.
he = who
him = whom
- Q: Who/Whom wrote the letter?
- A: He wrote the letter.
- who is correct.
- Q: For who/whom should I vote?
- A: I should vote for him.
- whom is correct.
- Q: We all know who/whom pulled that prank.
- A: He pulled that prank.
- who is correct.
This sentence contains two clauses: We all know
and who/whom pulled that prank
. We are interested in the second clause because it contains the who/whom.
- Q: We want to know on who/whom the prank was pulled.
- A: The prank was pulled on him.
- whom is correct.
This sentence contains two clauses: We want to know
and the prank was pulled on who/whom
. Again, we are interested in the second clause because it contains the who/whom.
Lay vs Lie
- Verb meaning to put or place somewhere
- Takes a direct object
- Parts are "lay, laid, laid, laying"
- I lay the book on the table
- Yesterday I laid the book on the table
- I have laid the book on the table many times
- I am laying the book on the table right now
- Verb meaning to recline
- Does NOT take a direct object
- Parts are "lie, lay, lain, lying"
- Every night I lie down
- I lay down last night
- I have lain down many times
- I am lying down right now
- Rule of Thumb
- Substitute verb "to place" in place
- If it makes sense, use "lay"
Affect vs Effect
- Affect (verb)
- To have an effect on
- Effect (noun)
- Something that is brought about by a cause
Ascent vs Assent
- Ascent (noun)
- A slope that angles upward
- Assent (noun)
- An agreement
All Ready vs Already
- All Ready (adj)
- Everyone or everything is ready
- Already (adverb)
- By this time
All Together vs Altogether
- All Together (adj)
- Everyone in a group
- Altogether (adverb)
- Entirely, completely
Altar vs Alter
- Altar (noun)
- Structure used in worship
Bear vs Bare
- Bear (verb)
- To carry or support
- Bear (noun)
- The animal that Stephen Colbert despises
Capital vs Capitol
- Capital (noun)
- A leading or governing body
- Capitol (noun)
- A building that houses a state's lawmaker's
Cite vs Site
- Cite (verb)
- To use as an example
- To quote
Complement vs Compliment
- Complement (noun)
- An element that completes
We had the full complement of pots and pans
Our store does not have enough employees to work the required complement of hours.
- Compliment (noun)
- A remark of appreication or flattery
- Compliment (verb)
- To flatter
Council vs Counsel
- Council (noun)
- Group of people brought together
Members of the council are appointed for a period of three years.”
- Counsel (noun or verb)
- advice that is usually given formually
- To give advice to someone
A counsel was appointed for the defendant by the court
The lawyer counseled her client on the matter brought to her attention
Descent vs Dissent
- Descent (noun)
- A slope that angles downward
- Situation where something is going from higher to lower (airplane)
- Dissent (noun)
- A disagreement
Dying vs Dyeing
- Dying (verb)
- Ceasing to live
- Dyeing (verb)
- Coloring a fabric
Forth vs Fourth
- Forth (adverb)
- Forward in place or time
- Fourth (noun or adj)
- Element after the third in sequence
Principal vs Principle
- Principal (noun)
- Chief or leader
- Principle (noun)
- Belief or a rule of conduct
Stationary vs Stationery
- Stationary (adj)
- Not moving or not capable of being moved
- Stationery (noun)
- Paper for writing letters
Their vs They're vs There
- Their (adj)
- Belonging to them
- They're (adj)
- "They are" in contraction form
- There (adj)
- In that place
To vs Too vs Two
- To (preposition)
- Indicates movement or intent
- Two (adj)
- Somethig that has two units
Whose vs Who's
- Whose (adj)
- Belong to whom
- Who's (adj)
- Contraction of "who is"
Your vs You're
- Your (adj)
- Belonging to you
- You're (adj)
- Contraction of "you are"
Ensure vs insure vs assure
- to inform positively
- to cause to be sure
- Something you do to a person, a group of people, or an animal to remove doubt or anxiety.
I assure you that I have been honest about the money I spent.
- To make sure or certain
- Something you do to guarantee an event or condition
Mauricio saved money from every paycheck to ensure he could buy gifts for his family at the end of the year.
- Insure means
- to provide insurance for
- to have insurance for
I will insure my car as required by law.
Then vs Than
Then - Used to show sequence
We had breakfast and then went ousideShe was just a child then
Than - Used to compare things
I am older than Steph