Chapter 6 - The legislative process.txt

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  1. Delegate Model of Representation
    The philosophy that legislators should adhere to the will of their constituents
  2. Trustee Model of Representation
    The philosophy that legislators should consider the will of the people but act in ways they believe best for the long-term interests of the nation
  3. Politico Model of Representation
    Legislators follow their own judgement until the public becomes vocal about a particular matter, at which point they should follow the dictates of constituents
  4. Conscience Model of Representation
    The philosophy that legislators should follow the will of the people until they truly believe it is in the best interests of the nation to act differently.
  5. Constituent service (is also called casework )
    Is a representational style where Representatives concentrate on helping constituents get their share from the federal government
  6. Symbolic Representation
    An important facet of te legislator's job is to speak on behalf of the groups they belong to
  7. 17th amendment
    Change to the U.S. Constitution, ratified in 1913, which provides for the direct election of senators.
  8. Rotation
    The staggering of senatorial terms such that one third of the Senate comes up for election every two years.
  9. Pocket Veto
    The president's killing of a bill that has been passed by both houses of Congress, simply by not signing it within 10 days of the bill's passage.
  10. Elastic Clause / Necessary and Proper Clause
    The Constitution that grants Congress the power to pass all laws "necessary and proper" for carrying out the list of expressed powers.
  11. At-Large Districts
    Districts encompassing an entire state, or large parts of the state, in which House members are elected to represent the entire area.
  12. Powers of the Congress
    Levy and collect taxes and duties, Borrow money on credit, Regulate commerce with foreign nations and between states, Establish rules on naturalization and bankruptcy, Coin Money, Create punishments for counterfeiting, Establish post offices, Promote progress of science and the arts, Constitute tribunals below the Supreme Court, Punish crimes on the high seas, Declare war, Raise and support the army, Provide and maintain a navy, Make rules for the use of the armed forces, Call out the militia, Organize, arm, and discipline the militia, Exercise exclusive legislation over the district of the seat of the fed gov, Make all laws deemed necessary and proper for implementing these powers
  13. Geographic Representation
    The idea of changing legislative districts in response to population shifts stems from the idea of Geographic Representation. Representatives should be directly responsible to a group of people living in a specific geographic location
  14. Redistricting
    The process of redrawing legislative district boundaries within a state to reflect population changes
  15. Term Limits, Inc v. Thornton (1995)
    • In 1990, some states tried to limit the number of terms of members in Congress, both in the House and in the Senate, but the Supreme Court found such restrictions unconstitutional.
    • It could only be changed with an amendment
  16. McCulloch v. Maryland (1819)
    Maryland legislature imposed a tax on all banks within the state, James McCulloch refused to pay the tax. The dispute arrived to the U.S Supreme Court and Chief Justice John Marshall. He made it clear that based on the constitution congress has implied powers. In one clean sweep Marshall's ruling greatly expanded the scope of national government's power.
  17. Gerrymandering
    Drawing Legislative district boundaries in such a way as to gain political advantage
  18. Types of Gerrymandering: packing
    Packing is lumping as many opposition voters as possible into one district.
  19. Types of Gerrymandering: cracking
    Cracking involves splitting up groups of voters thought of to favor the opposition so that they do not make up a majority in any district and thus can not win in any district
  20. Positive Gerrymandering
    After 1990 census, 24 majority-minority districts were created in different states. 15 African American and 9 Hispanic. In a series of decisions, Courts approved plans that improved the likelihood of minority representation but seemed reluctant to allow highly irregularly shaped districts (Shaw v. Reno, 1993) or to approve schemes that use race as the primary criterion for drawing district lines (Miller v. Johnson, 1995)
  21. Reapportionment
    The process by which seats in the House of Representative are reassigned among the states to reflect population changes following the census (every 10 years)
  22. Subcommittee
    a specialized group within standing committees
  23. Conference Committee
    A committee of members of the House and Senate that irons out differences in similar measures that have passed both houses to create a single bill
  24. Oversight
    The responsibility of Congress to keep an eye on agencies in the federal bureaucracy to ensure that their behavior conforms to its wishes
  25. Hearings
    Committee sessions for taking testimony from witnesses and for collecting information on legislation under consideration or for the development of new legislation
  26. Markup
    The prime sponsor hammers out the actual language of the bill to address his concerns and to win the necessary approval.
  27. Reports
    The staff of the committee prepares a report that summarizes the bill's provisions and rationale behind them.
  28. Rules Report
    This is a critically important step where the committee establishes the rules regarding the consideration of the legislation, which helps streamline the process and make things fair
  29. Staffers working for the congress
    • They are the unelected representatives" that draft bills, prepare speeches, statements and reports and research information relevant to administrative oversight.
    • There were about 600 in 1967, but by 1994 there were more than 3000
  30. Voting cues
    Summaries encapsulating the informed judgement of others in the legislature; members of congress rely on these to streamline the decision-making process.
  31. Party unit scores
    Measures of party unity based on a gauge of how often members of the same party stick together
  32. Caucus
    It can be a verb (working together to accomplish a common goal), and it is also a noun. They are sometimes called coalitions, study groups, and task forces.
  33. Whips
    Assistants to Congress responsible for drumming up support for legislation and for keeping count of how members plan to vote on different pieces of legislation
  34. President pro tempore
    "For the time being", the senate is led by its elected president when the VP is not available.
  35. Filibuster
    A process in the senate used to block or delay voting on a proposed legislation or on an appointment of a judge or other official by talking continuously. 60 votes are needed to end a filibuster (Cloture)
  36. Cloture
    A rule declaring the end of a debate in the senate. Three fifths of the senators must vote to end the discussion of a bill, that is - "to invoke cloture".
  37. Hold
    It is another variation of cloture where a senators signals to the rest of the chamber that it would be pointless to bring a bill because he intends to use delaying tactics to stave off a final bill.
  38. Seniority
    Length of time served in a chamber of the legislature. Members with greater seniority have traditionally been granted greater power.
  39. apprenceship norm
    novice legislators expected to work hard, get along, be deferential and polite and keep their mouth shut most of the time.
  40. Civility
    is another powerful norm in both chambers. Regardless of ideology or party, members are expected to accord each other respect and even exaggerated levels of courtesy.
  41. Congressman Joe Wilson
    Congressman from South Carolina, on September 9, 2009 he shouted: "You lie" to Obama during a presidential address. He later issued a formal apology and his colleagues issued him a formal reprimand.
  42. Specialization
    is a norm that suggests members of both chambers are expected to become well versed in a small number of claims
  43. Reciprocity
    Supporting a legislator's bill in exchange for support of one's own bill.
  44. Earmarks Pork-Barrel Legislation
    Legislation that benefits one state or districts, also called particularized legislation.
  45. Bridges to nowhere
    Alaskan Republican Senator Ted Stevens was the powerful chair of the Appropiations Committee, and the in the House, Republican Don Young, formerly chair of the House Transportation Committee, when they heard of opposition, they threatened with not taking seriously any of their projects. No members wanted to get on the wrong side of these powerful chairs.
  46. Longest filibustering Speech in American History
    It ocurred in 1957 when Senator Strom Thurmond of South Carolina (Democrat who later became republican) held the floor for more than 24 hours in an effort to block what became the Civil Rights Act of 1957.
  47. representation
    it means that someone speaks and works on behalf of others.
  48. Committes of the Senate
    Agriculture, Nutritiion and Forestry, DHS, Appropriations, Judiciary, Armed Services, Rules and Administration, Banking Housing and Urban Affairs, Budget, Small Bus and Entrepeneurship, Commerce, Finance, Foreign Relations, Hearl, Enviroment and Public works
  49. Special Committees
    Aging, Ethics, Intelligence & Indian Affairs
  50. Committees of the House
    Agriculture, Judiciary, Appropriations, Nat. Resources, Armed Services, Budget, Rules, Ed and Labor, Sci and Tech, Energy & Commerce, Financial Svces, Sm. Bus, Standards of Official Conduct, Foreign Affairs, Homeland Security, Vet Affairs, House Admin, Ways and Means
  51. First woman elected to House of Reps
    Jeannette Ranking of Montana in 1916, voted against WWI and after Pearl Harbor
  52. First woman to Senate
    • Rebecca Felton from Georgia in 1922, by 1950, there were about 17 females in Congress.
    • The number dipped between 1960 & 1970
  53. First Black elected to House of Reps
    Joseph Hane Rainey of South Carolina in 1870, escaped to Bermuda and after the Civil War, he returned to SC and worked with Republican Party.
  54. First Black elected to Senate
    Hiram Rhodes Revels, from Mississippi in 1870
  55. People that have been indicted in Congress
    • Tom DeLay, Rep from Texas, conspiracy to violate election laws.
    • Jack Abramoff, lobbyist, string of indictments
    • Larry Craig from Idaho, lewd behavior, 2007 Richard Nixon, Watergate scandal 1970s
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Chapter 6 - The legislative process.txt
Congress Chapter
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