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Know Erikson's stages and crises for Middle Adulthood through Late Adulthood
- Middle adulthood: Generativity vs. stagnation- can I make my life count? Work, parenthood
- Late Adulthood: Integrity vs. despair-is it okay to have been me? Reflection on life
The gradual decline of physical capacities, varies organ to organ
gender differences in senescence
outward appearance and longevity, woman age more slowly
What are changes in physical appearance, sense organs and reproductive system in middle adulthood?
- Physical appearance: outward signs of senescence are presented long before old age arrives
- Sense organs: sight is the first to go, the aging brain
- The sexual reproductive systems declines
How prevalent is infertility? Among healthy adults in their 20s? Among 30 year olds in poor countries? Why is there a difference? What are some causes of infertility?
- Only 2% of 20's are infertile
- 33% of 30 year olds in poor countries
- Rates are highest in countries with highest birth rates, because of less health care
Why do doctors recommend women have children before 30 and men before 40?
Egg production declines, chromosomal problems increase, and semen quantity and motility decreases
Menopause: what are symptoms? When does it usually occur?
- The time, usually around age 50, when a women's menstrual periods cease completely and the production of estrogen, proestrogen, and testosterone drops, 1 year after last period
- Hot flashes and night sweats
Midlife crisis: what percent of population does it really affect?
Empty nest: Is this the typical experience for parents whose children have left home?
- Improved mood and welling being for most women
- Increased marital satisfaction
What is marital satisfaction like in middle adulthood?
What are the health habits that affect quality of life?
Obesity and diabetes from over eating
What percentage of US is overweight? Obese? Know obesity is the leading cause of premature death
- 1/3 are obese
- U.S. leads world in rate of obesity and diabetes
SES differences in aging
Well educated, financially secure people live long, avoid chronic illness and diabetes, and feel healthier
Why do most long-term marriages last according the couples themselves? See p. 291
Affected by family relationships in childhood
As covered in class approximately what is the divorce rate in terms of numbers per 1,000 in the U.S.?
Understand the research on the effects of divorce. And remarriage. When might divorce be more beneficial? When might it be most stressful?
- Is most likely in the first 5 years of marriage
- Is higher among those who have been married before
According to your text, what are ways adults seek generativity (begins p. 596)
Through work or parenthood or care giving
In late adulthood what are the: Appearance, sensory, hormonal, health status, mobility, intelligence, cognitive and memory changes (what abilities decline and what impact do they have)?
They all decline
What can lessen the cognitive decline in the later years of life?
Good health and intellectual stimulation
Know what ages the terms young-old, old-old, and oldest-old refer to and the general ability/health status associated with each group.
- Young-old: 60-75
- Old-old: 75+
- Oldest-old: 85+
- Life expectancy drops
age discrimination stereotyping and discriminating against individuals or groups because of their age
According to material covered in class, does sex remain important to older adults? Is there a significant decline in sex drive with age? What accounts for most of the decline in sexual activity among older adults?
- Yes there is a decline
- Men's physical health (40%), lack of partner, ed, women: 45% lack of interest, 35% lack of orgasm
Are rates of mental disorder and substance abuse higher, lower, or the same in late adulthood compared to other age groups?
Lower than the other age groups
How do social networks change for older adults? (How does the importance of children and siblings tend to change in later years?)
- Relationship satisfaction
- While older adults maintain ties with children and siblings, friends become more important
What is dementia?
A chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning
What are types of dementia covered in the text and in class?
Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, subcortial (Parkinson's, Huntington's, and MS), frontal lobe dementia, alcohol induced
What is the approximate rate of Alzheimers (AD) at different ages? (Know AD is most common form, about 50% of dementia cases)
- 1% of 65 yrs old
- 20% of those over 85 yrs old
- 50% of those over 100 yrs old
Age in place
Refers to people growing old in the home where they currently live
can be described as the group of people who accompanies us on the journey of life
Why are there increasing numbers of frail elderly?
There is an increase in amount of elderly and they are living longer
Only 1/3 of Americans know about it, hospice is to keep a person from suffering
What do children understand about death?
- Children as young as 2 have some understanding
- Permanence happens usually around 5 years old
- Living behaviors: breathing, loving, hearing, experience pain
- More experience with death leads to a better understanding
How can you talk to children about the death of a loved one?
- Dont tell them they are asleep
- Dont use euphemisms
- Be straight, explain they dont do things that living people do
An individuals emotional response to the death of another
The ceremonies and behavior that a religion or culture follow after a death
The sense of loss following a death
What is a living will and what are the advantages of it?
Refuse treatments you dont want, you know the outcome, prevent arguments among family members, make decisions easy for your family, insure doctors follow your wishes
Health care proxy
allows a patient to appoint an agent to make health care decisions in the event that the primary individual is incapable of executing such decisions.
prohibits the use of cardiopulmonary techniques to keep you alive during cardiac arrest
entails the withholding of common treatments, such as antibiotics, necessary for the continuance of life
entails the use of lethal substances or forces, such as administering a lethal injection, to kill and is the most controversial means
What is meant by a good death?
free from avoidable distress and suffering for patients, families, and caregivers
What are the types of complicated grief?
- Absent grief: openly people cult themselves off (social isolation)
- Disenfranchised grief: not allowed to grieve (not wanted at ceremony)
- Incomplete grief: grief is cut short (body not available for service, holidays or other event)