life span final

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life span final
2012-05-21 16:44:02
middle adulthood late end life

middle adulthood late adulthood and end of life
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  1. Know Erikson's stages and crises for Middle Adulthood through Late Adulthood
    • Middle adulthood: Generativity vs. stagnation- can I make my life count? Work, parenthood
    • Late Adulthood: Integrity vs. despair-is it okay to have been me? Reflection on life
  2. Senescence
    The gradual decline of physical capacities, varies organ to organ
  3. gender differences in senescence
    outward appearance and longevity, woman age more slowly
  4. What are changes in physical appearance, sense organs and reproductive system in middle adulthood?
    • Physical appearance: outward signs of senescence are presented long before old age arrives
    • Sense organs: sight is the first to go, the aging brain
    • The sexual reproductive systems declines
  5. How prevalent is infertility? Among healthy adults in their 20s? Among 30 year olds in poor countries? Why is there a difference? What are some causes of infertility?
    • Only 2% of 20's are infertile
    • 33% of 30 year olds in poor countries
    • Rates are highest in countries with highest birth rates, because of less health care
  6. Why do doctors recommend women have children before 30 and men before 40?
    Egg production declines, chromosomal problems increase, and semen quantity and motility decreases
  7. Menopause: what are symptoms? When does it usually occur?
    • The time, usually around age 50, when a women's menstrual periods cease completely and the production of estrogen, proestrogen, and testosterone drops, 1 year after last period
    • Hot flashes and night sweats
  8. Andropause
    Male menopause
  9. Midlife crisis: what percent of population does it really affect?
  10. Empty nest: Is this the typical experience for parents whose children have left home?
    • Improved mood and welling being for most women
    • Increased marital satisfaction
  11. What is marital satisfaction like in middle adulthood?
    It increases
  12. What are the health habits that affect quality of life?
    Obesity and diabetes from over eating
  13. What percentage of US is overweight? Obese? Know obesity is the leading cause of premature death
    • 30%
    • 1/3 are obese
    • U.S. leads world in rate of obesity and diabetes
  14. SES differences in aging
    Well educated, financially secure people live long, avoid chronic illness and diabetes, and feel healthier
  15. Why do most long-term marriages last according the couples themselves? See p. 291
    Affected by family relationships in childhood
  16. As covered in class approximately what is the divorce rate in terms of numbers per 1,000 in the U.S.?
  17. Understand the research on the effects of divorce. And remarriage. When might divorce be more beneficial? When might it be most stressful?
    • Is most likely in the first 5 years of marriage
    • Is higher among those who have been married before
  18. According to your text, what are ways adults seek generativity (begins p. 596)
    Through work or parenthood or care giving
  19. In late adulthood what are the: Appearance, sensory, hormonal, health status, mobility, intelligence, cognitive and memory changes (what abilities decline and what impact do they have)?
    They all decline
  20. What can lessen the cognitive decline in the later years of life?
    Good health and intellectual stimulation
  21. Know what ages the terms young-old, old-old, and oldest-old refer to and the general ability/health status associated with each group.
    • Young-old: 60-75
    • Old-old: 75+
    • Oldest-old: 85+
    • Life expectancy drops
  22. Ageism
    age discrimination stereotyping and discriminating against individuals or groups because of their age
  23. According to material covered in class, does sex remain important to older adults? Is there a significant decline in sex drive with age? What accounts for most of the decline in sexual activity among older adults?
    • Yes
    • Yes there is a decline
    • Men's physical health (40%), lack of partner, ed, women: 45% lack of interest, 35% lack of orgasm
  24. Are rates of mental disorder and substance abuse higher, lower, or the same in late adulthood compared to other age groups?
    Lower than the other age groups
  25. How do social networks change for older adults? (How does the importance of children and siblings tend to change in later years?)
    • Relationship satisfaction
    • While older adults maintain ties with children and siblings, friends become more important
  26. What is dementia?
    A chronic or persistent disorder of the mental processes caused by brain disease or injury and marked by memory disorders, personality changes, and impaired reasoning
  27. What are types of dementia covered in the text and in class?
    Alzheimer's, vascular dementia, subcortial (Parkinson's, Huntington's, and MS), frontal lobe dementia, alcohol induced
  28. What is the approximate rate of Alzheimers (AD) at different ages? (Know AD is most common form, about 50% of dementia cases)
    • 1% of 65 yrs old
    • 20% of those over 85 yrs old
    • 50% of those over 100 yrs old
  29. Age in place
    Refers to people growing old in the home where they currently live
  30. Social convoy
    can be described as the group of people who accompanies us on the journey of life
  31. Why are there increasing numbers of frail elderly?
    There is an increase in amount of elderly and they are living longer
  32. Hospice
    Only 1/3 of Americans know about it, hospice is to keep a person from suffering
  33. What do children understand about death?
    • Children as young as 2 have some understanding
    • Permanence happens usually around 5 years old
    • Living behaviors: breathing, loving, hearing, experience pain
    • More experience with death leads to a better understanding
  34. How can you talk to children about the death of a loved one?
    • Dont tell them they are asleep
    • Dont use euphemisms
    • Be straight, explain they dont do things that living people do
  35. Grief
    An individuals emotional response to the death of another
  36. Mourning
    The ceremonies and behavior that a religion or culture follow after a death
  37. Bereavement
    The sense of loss following a death
  38. What is a living will and what are the advantages of it?
    Refuse treatments you dont want, you know the outcome, prevent arguments among family members, make decisions easy for your family, insure doctors follow your wishes
  39. Health care proxy
    allows a patient to appoint an agent to make health care decisions in the event that the primary individual is incapable of executing such decisions.
  40. DNR
    prohibits the use of cardiopulmonary techniques to keep you alive during cardiac arrest
  41. Passive euthanasia
    entails the withholding of common treatments, such as antibiotics, necessary for the continuance of life
  42. Active euthanasia
    entails the use of lethal substances or forces, such as administering a lethal injection, to kill and is the most controversial means
  43. What is meant by a good death?
    free from avoidable distress and suffering for patients, families, and caregivers
  44. What are the types of complicated grief?
    • Absent grief: openly people cult themselves off (social isolation)
    • Disenfranchised grief: not allowed to grieve (not wanted at ceremony)
    • Incomplete grief: grief is cut short (body not available for service, holidays or other event)