Cancer - glossery

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Cancer - glossery
2010-04-21 07:36:48
cancer key terms

cancer - key terms ch. 16 Lewis
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  1. benign neoplasm
    a localized tumor that has a fibrous capsule, limited potential for growth, a regular shape, and cells that are well differentiated; does not invade surrounding tissue or metastasize to distant sites.
  2. biologic therapy
    treatment using biologic agents such as interferons, interleukins, monoclonal antibodies, and growth factors to modify the relationship between the host and the tumor by altering the biologic response of the host to the tumor cells.
  3. bone marrow transplant
    the transplantation of bone marrow from healthy donors to stimulate production of normal blood cells; provides for the safe use of very high doses of chemotherapy or radiation therapy to patients whose tumors have developed resistance or failed to respond to standard doses of chemotherapy and radiation.
  4. brachytherapy
    radiation delivery system that means "closed" treatment and consists of the implantation or insertion of radioactive materials directly into the tumor or in close proximity to the tumor.
  5. cancer
    a group of more than 200 diseases characterized by uncontrolled and unregulated growth of cells.
  6. carcinogens
    agents capable of producing cellular alterations leading to the development or increasing the incidence of neoplastic growth.
  7. carcinoma in situ
    a lesion with all the histologic features of cancer except invasion.
  8. carcinomas
    malignant tumors that originate from embryonal ectoderm (skin and glands) and endoderm (mucous membrane linings of the respiratory tract, GI tract, and genitourinary tract).
  9. chemotherapy
    the treatment of disease with chemical agents.
  10. hematopoietic stem cell transplant
    transplantation of bone marrow and peripheral stem cells.
  11. malignant neoplasm
    a tumor that tends to grow, invade, and metastasize; usually has an irregular shape and is composed of poorly differentiated cells; if untreated, it may result in death.
  12. metastasis
    the spread of the cancer from the initial or primary site to a distant site.
  13. nadir
    the lowest point, such as the blood count after it has been depressed by chemotherapy.
  14. oncogenes
    potentially cancer-inducing genes.
  15. protooncogenes
    normal cellular genes that are important regulators of normal cellular processes.
  16. radiation
    the emission and distribution of energy through space or a material medium that can be used to cause cellular death.
  17. sarcoma
    a malignant tumor that originates from embryonal mesoderm that becomes connective tissue, muscle, bone, and fat.
  18. staging
    the process of classifying the extent and spread of disease.
  19. targeted therapy
    treatment that interferes with cancer growth by targeting specific cellular receptors and pathways that are important in tumor growth.
  20. teletherapy
    radiation therapy administered by a machine that is positioned at some distance from the patient; the most common form of radiation therapy treatment.
  21. tumor angiogenesis
    the process of the formation of blood vessels within the tumor itself.
  22. tumor suppressor genes
    genes that suppress neoplastic growth.
  23. vesicants
    agents that when accidentally infiltrated into the skin cause severe local tissue breakdown and necrosis.