Extraordinary powers that the president may use under certain conditions.
Philadelphia Constitutional Convention of 1787
It was the first scheme for new government where the delegates discussed the Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan.
The pseudonym for a writer of a series of articles in opposition to the ratification of the Constitution.
He had the chor of countering Cato's argument and he did it on Federalist # 69.
A theory of restrained presidential powers; the idea that presidents should use only the powers explicitly granted in the Constitution. Warren G. Harding, Calvin Coolidge and Herbert Hoover (1921-1933)
A theory of robust, broad presidential powers; the idea that the president in only limited by explicit restrictions on the Constitution. Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson.
A political system in which the president is the central figure and participates actively in both foreign and domestic policy. Franklin Delano Roosevelt ,during the Great Depression.
The New Deal
A series of programs and initiatives that transformed the national government, giving birth to the welfare state and shaped the modern presidency.
A group of presidential advisers, primarily the secretaries of federal departments.
The advisers considered most important to the president, usually the secretaries of the departments of state, defense, treasury and justice.
Executive Office of the President (EOP)
A group of presidential staff agencies created in 1939 that provides the resident with help and advice.
National Security Council
Established in 1947, gives the president independent, unbiased advice on national security matters. Led by the national security adviser.
Office of Management and Budget
Preparing the president's annual national budget proposal, monitoring the performance of federal agencies, and overseeing regulatory proposals.
Council of Economic Advisers (CEA)
Established in 1946, is led by three members - usually eminent economists who are appointed by the president and confirmed by the Senate. Prepare the annual economic report to Congress.
A national program started in 1935 that taxes wages and salaries to pay for retirement benefits, disability insurance, and hospital insurance.
The concept of the presidency as a working collectivity, a massive network of staff, analysts, and advisers withthe president as its head.
Informal Powers of the President / Political Context
The power to persuade, use a combination of personality and political skills to lobby members of Congress. Presidential power is larger determined by broader political forces, what scholars call the political order or context.
Appealing directly to the people to garner support for presidential initiatives.
A formal agreement between governments
Also known as arrangements, they are binding commitments between the United States and other countries agreed to by the president but, unlike treaties, nor requiring approval by the Senate.
War Powers Resolution
A measure passed by Congress in 1973 designed to limit presidential deployment of troops unless Congress grants approval for a longer period.
The Reagan administration's unauthorized diversion of funds from the sale of arms to Iran to support the Contras, rebels fighting to overthrow the leftist government of Nicaragua.
A regulation made by the president that has the effect of law.
A written proclamation issued by the president regarding how the executive branch intends to interpret a new law.
Domestic Affairs and Defense/Foreign policy.
The notion that there are greater and greater expectations placed on presidents, due in large measure to the way they run for office. At the same time, presidents are often unable to deliver on the promises they made during campaigns.