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Leads to better practice performance. This practice becomes more automatice and does little to promote comparisons of similarities and differences...does not produce lasting effects or carry-over.
- Makes practice more difficult but enhances the learning of multiple skills.
- Variation in the order of practice; tasks are intermingled or continuously rotated. Leads to better retention retrieval practice. Random practice produces better retention results.
When to use blocked practice?
When first learning skill, but switch to random soon after.
One situation to use blocked practice continuously - free throws
Most difficult form of practice
- A set of rules relating movement outcomes to the parameters set by the performer.
- (Set of rules that relate parameter values to goal)
- Similar to blocked practice; people rehearse one variation of a task during a session (throwing a dart)
- No practice in changing parameters
Random practice works best for retention and skill improvement
- People practice different versions of the same action; rehearsal matches actual performance (throwing a softball)
- The practice of different versions of the same movement pattern
Generalized Motor Program
Allows performers to adapt their movements to meet varying environmental demands
Occurs more frequently during random practice than during blocked practice
The process of selecting a specific parameter, such as force or movement time, to meet a particular environmental demand
Higher for random practice than for blocked practice
Learner forgets task A to do task B, then has to relearn or replan the task next time.
First stage in the information-processing model; recognizing and identifying the input (distance a ball must be thrown)
Second stage; deciding which, if any, response to make (what kind of throw is needed)
The third stage; organizing the motor system to produce the desired movement (force, trajectory, release of the throw)
Varied Practice in Schema Development
Stong, stable rules determine the parameters of the desired action. A schema changes based on past experience and the desired goal.
A combination of random and varied practice yields the best results. Engaging learners in a correct combination of random and varied practice may yield better performance gains than having them complete either practice schedule independently.
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