Chapter 10

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Anonymous
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155187
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Chapter 10
Updated:
2012-05-22 00:56:27
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Bethel
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Motor development and learning final
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  1. Two different types of feedback
    Intrinsic and Extrinsic
  2. Intrinsic
    vision, proprioception, audition, forces, touch, smell
  3. Extrinsic
    Knowledge of performance, knowledge of results, augmented feedback
  4. Knowledge of Results (KR)
    Extrinsic feedback about the success of the action. Without it learning cannont occur
  5. Knowledge of Performance (KP)
    Information about the movement pattern. Kinematic feedback. Program variables are hard to change and should be worked on first
  6. Classification system for sensory information
    • All sensory info
    • -Movement-related
    • .........available before movement
    • .........available as a result of movement: feedback
    • ....................intrinsic feedback: vision, audition, touch, smell
    • ....................extrinsic feedback: KP and KR
    • -Not movement-related
  7. How much feedback?
    Depends on complexity of task and learners experience. Feedback is beneficial while learning difficult tasks, but not simple tasks.
  8. How should feedback be given?
    Publicly is highly motivating
  9. Positive Reinforcement
    An event following a response that increases the likelihood that the performer will repeat the response again under similar circumstances; similar to a reward
  10. Negative Reinforcement
    An event following a response that removes an aversive condition and increases the likelihood that the performer will repeat the response again under similar circumstances
  11. Prescriptive Feedback
    • Feedback that describes the erros made during the performance of a skill and some things the learner might do to correct the errors
    • Most beneficial
  12. Program Feedback
    Feedback that provides error information about the fundamental pattern of a movement (i.e. the generalized motor program)
  13. Parameter Feedback
    Feedback that provides error information about the changeable surface features (e.g. amplitude, speed, force) of movement
  14. Videotape
    • Initially pointing out specific cues contained in a video display is effective - attentional cueing.
    • As learners become more skilled at producing their actions and recognizing the key movement componets they need to address, their attention can be directed to more subtle aspects of their performance.
  15. Program Feedback
    Assists learners in developing fundamental relative motion pattern. More useful for beginners or inexperienced learners. "make the hands move faster than the arms" with batting
  16. Parameter Feedback
    Assists learners in adjusting fundamental relative motion pattern. More useful for more experienced learners. "swing faster" conveys need to increase amount of force applied
  17. Visual Feedback
    Provides learners with a visual depiction of their action. More useful for more experienced learners. Beginners may need additional verbal cueing. --videotape replay of bat swing to convey image of action from several viewing points.
  18. Descriptive Feedback
    Directs learners' attention to a particular aspect of the action. More useful for more experienced learners. "your swing is too stiff" to convey observable characteristic or action
  19. Prescriptive Feedback
    Suggests a specific alteration or correction for the action. More useful for beginners or inexperienced learners. "relax the hands and move them faster" to convey adjustment that might correct observed error
  20. Average Feedback
    Feedback provided after a series of practive attempts that informs learners about their average performance. Helps practitioners avoid dependency-producing effects and allows the instructor to develop an idea of the learner's general movement pattern.
  21. Summary Feedback
    Feedback provided after a series of performance attempts that informs learners about each of the attempts in the series.
  22. Bandwidth Feedback
    Feedback provided only when errors exceed a certain tolerance level. Reduces learners' dependence on external feedback as they become more skilled. Feedback not given means that the performance was at least acceptable.
  23. Classifying Feedback
    Initially it was based on only the actual movement (proprioceptive feedback), which compared the actual feedback to the desired goal to eliminate error. The contemporary definiton characterizes feedback more broadly as any kind of sensory information pertaining to the movement
  24. When is feedback available?
    Usually before the movement, some during, and after the movement
  25. Requirements of Feedback
    Typically, without KR there is little or no learning. One must have some sort of error detection form, either KP or KR or both.
  26. Reinforcement
    Reinforcement after a person's response is necessary and increases the likelihood that he or she will produce the same response under similar circumstances
  27. Punishment
    Tells the person that the action is not desirable but does not give the corrected, beneficial information.
  28. Intermittent Reinforcement
    Given only occasionally is more effective for learning than feedback given after every performance
  29. Informational Feedback
    Provides error-correction information more precise than "the shot was a little wide."
  30. Frequency of Feedback
    Absolute feedback frequence and Relative feedback frequency
  31. Absolute feedback frequency
    tTotal number of times feedback is given for a series of performances. Increasing the frequency of this enhances learning.
  32. Relative feedback frequency
    Total number of times feedback is presented divided by number of movement attempts (multiplied by 100 for percentage)
  33. Delayed Feedback
    Provided several seconds or more after movement completion. Delayed feedback is believed to allow learners time to process their own feedback and estimate their own errors, which allows more learning.
  34. Instantaneous Feedback
    Provided immediately after movement completion. Instantaneous feedback results in less learning or poorer performance than delayed feedback does.

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