Depends on complexity of task and learners experience. Feedback is beneficial while learning difficult tasks, but not simple tasks.
How should feedback be given?
Publicly is highly motivating
An event following a response that increases the likelihood that the performer will repeat the response again under similar circumstances; similar to a reward
An event following a response that removes an aversive condition and increases the likelihood that the performer will repeat the response again under similar circumstances
Feedback that describes the erros made during the performance of a skill and some things the learner might do to correct the errors
Feedback that provides error information about the fundamental pattern of a movement (i.e. the generalized motor program)
Feedback that provides error information about the changeable surface features (e.g. amplitude, speed, force) of movement
Initially pointing out specific cues contained in a video display is effective - attentional cueing.
As learners become more skilled at producing their actions and recognizing the key movement componets they need to address, their attention can be directed to more subtle aspects of their performance.
Assists learners in developing fundamental relative motion pattern. More useful for beginners or inexperienced learners. "make the hands move faster than the arms" with batting
Assists learners in adjusting fundamental relative motion pattern. More useful for more experienced learners. "swing faster" conveys need to increase amount of force applied
Provides learners with a visual depiction of their action. More useful for more experienced learners. Beginners may need additional verbal cueing. --videotape replay of bat swing to convey image of action from several viewing points.
Directs learners' attention to a particular aspect of the action. More useful for more experienced learners. "your swing is too stiff" to convey observable characteristic or action
Suggests a specific alteration or correction for the action. More useful for beginners or inexperienced learners. "relax the hands and move them faster" to convey adjustment that might correct observed error
Feedback provided after a series of practive attempts that informs learners about their average performance. Helps practitioners avoid dependency-producing effects and allows the instructor to develop an idea of the learner's general movement pattern.
Feedback provided after a series of performance attempts that informs learners about each of the attempts in the series.
Feedback provided only when errors exceed a certain tolerance level. Reduces learners' dependence on external feedback as they become more skilled. Feedback not given means that the performance was at least acceptable.
Initially it was based on only the actual movement (proprioceptive feedback), which compared the actual feedback to the desired goal to eliminate error. The contemporary definiton characterizes feedback more broadly as any kind of sensory information pertaining to the movement
When is feedback available?
Usually before the movement, some during, and after the movement
Requirements of Feedback
Typically, without KR there is little or no learning. One must have some sort of error detection form, either KP or KR or both.
Reinforcement after a person's response is necessary and increases the likelihood that he or she will produce the same response under similar circumstances
Tells the person that the action is not desirable but does not give the corrected, beneficial information.
Given only occasionally is more effective for learning than feedback given after every performance
Provides error-correction information more precise than "the shot was a little wide."
Frequency of Feedback
Absolute feedback frequence and Relative feedback frequency
Absolute feedback frequency
tTotal number of times feedback is given for a series of performances. Increasing the frequency of this enhances learning.
Relative feedback frequency
Total number of times feedback is presented divided by number of movement attempts (multiplied by 100 for percentage)
Provided several seconds or more after movement completion. Delayed feedback is believed to allow learners time to process their own feedback and estimate their own errors, which allows more learning.
Provided immediately after movement completion. Instantaneous feedback results in less learning or poorer performance than delayed feedback does.