Card Set Information
Other GI Drugs Test1
What is the action of Prokinetics and when can they be used?
Increase the tone and motility of the GI tract
Gastro-esophogeal reflux disease
: Encourage stomach contents to move to intestine more quickly.
induced nausea and vomiting
: Again, move more quickly and thereby decrease nausea.
: Aids motility of stomach contents -->intestine.
Suppresses emesis by blocking receptors for dopamine and serotonin in the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ)of the brain
Increases upper GI motility by enhancing the action of ACh (Acetylcholine)
May give in oral or parenteral form
Postoperative nausea and vomiting
Opioid side effects (they decrease peristalsis.)
What are the side adverse effects and contraindications of
Extrapyramidal symptoms (Involuntary movement of parasympathetic nervous system).
All conditions are exacerbated by increased peristalsis.
General Information about Antiemetics...
Used to suppress emetic (vomiting) Response.
Reflex started by activation of the vomiting center in the medulla either directly or indirectly.
Signals from the cerebral cortex
Vestibular apparatus of inner ear
Indirectly~ Through stimulation of the chemoreceptor trigger zone (CTZ)
Receptors~ Serotonin, Dopamine, Acetylcholine and Histamine
Emetogenic compounds (stuff that makes you puke)– opioids (especially oral), chemotherapy drugs or toxins
What are 3 types of Emetis?
Anticipatory ~Triggered by memories
Acute ~ Occurs 1-2 hours after chemotherapy
Delayed ~ Occurs a day or more after chemotherapy
For chemo pt’s, preemptively administer their antiemetic as soon as they arrive because they will likely have anticipatory nausea as soon as they get there.
Things to consider when treating emetis...
Antiemetics are more effective in PREVENTING emesis than in suppressing it,
so always deal with nausea before it turns into vomitting.
Nausea is a subjective symptom. Like pain, it is what the pt says it is.
What is the action of Serotonin Recptor Antagonist Antiemetics?
Acts by blocking serotonin receptors in the CTZ and on afferent vagal neurons in the upper GI tract
First line drugs available to relieve nausea from chemotherapy, PONV (PostOp Nausea and Vomiting)
Seratonin (5HT3) Receptor Antagonist
Oral or parenteral forms
Usually given prior to emetic events
Can be used for PONV (PostOp Nausea Vomitting)
Very often used prior to chemo therapy.
What are some adverse reactions to Seratonin (5-HT3) Antagonist Recpetors?
Somnolence (sleepiness, loopiness)
Occassional prolonged QT (heart rhythm) changes
Dopamine Antagonsit Antiemetic Drugs
Blocks dopamine receptors in the CTZ
Isn’t effective for motion sickness
Side effects make it difficult to tolerate
What are the adverse side effects of Dopamine Antagonist Antiemetic drugs like
Prolonged QT complex