Kines Quiz 1

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Omidancer1
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155266
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Kines Quiz 1
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2012-05-24 00:33:59
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Kines Quiz
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Kines quiz 1
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  1. Hard (Bony) End Feel
    Motion is stopped when bone contacts bone. Normal end for some joints. Abnormal if there are loose fragments in joint that stop the motion.
  2. Soft End Feel
    Motion is stopped by soft tissues being compressed. Normal for some joints. Abnormal if there is a boggy feel to motion, indication of edima.
  3. Firm End Feel
    Motion is stopped by soft tissues that have reached there limit of strech. If motion is limited this is a sign of tissue shortening.
  4. Empty End Feel
    Motion is stopped in response to pain due to guarding or patient request to stop. Always abnormal.
  5. MMT 0
    • Absent
    • No palpable conraction
  6. MMT 1
    • Trace
    • Muscle contraction present but no joint movement
  7. MMT 2-
    • Poor -
    • Cannot complete full ROM with gravity eliminated
  8. MMT 2
    • Poor
    • Can move body segment with gravity eliminated
  9. MMT 2+
    • Poor +
    • Can complete full ROM with gravity eliminated against some resistance (i.e. friction)
  10. MMT 3-
    • Fair -
    • Can complete more than half of ROM against gravity
  11. MMT 3
    • Fair
    • Can move body segment against gravity with no other resistance
  12. MMT 3+
    • Fair +
    • Can complete full ROM against gravity with minimal resistance
  13. MMT 4-
    • Good -
    • Can complete full ROM against gravity with less than moderate resistance
  14. MMT 4
    • Good
    • Can complete full ROM against gravity with moderate resistance
  15. MMT 4+
    • Good +
    • Can complete full ROM against gravity with less than maximal resistance
  16. MMT 5
    • Normal
    • Can complete full ROM against gravity with maximal resistance
  17. Force
    An interaction, a push or pull, between two objects that can arrest, induce, or modify movement
  18. Newton's First Law
    • Law of Inertia
    • Linear: Bodies remain at rest or in uniform motion until acted upon by an unbalanced force (momentum = mass x linear velocity)
    • Angular: Bodies remaing at rest of in uniform angular motion until acted upon by unbalanced torques (momentum = mass x angular velocity)
  19. Newton's Second Law
    • Law of Acceleration
    • Linear: The acceleration of a body is proportional to the net force applied to the body (force = mass x linear acceleration)
    • Angular: The acceleration of a body is proportional to the net force applied to the body (torque = mass moment of intertia x angular acceleration)
  20. Newton's Third Law
    • Momentum
    • For every action, there is an equal and opposite reaction
    • Angular: with regard to torque
  21. Friction
    Friction = frictions coefficient x normal force

    Normal force is the force perpendicular to the friction force
  22. Inertial Force
    • In human systems, movements in one segment can exert forces on adjacent segments
    • Usually a proximal segment on a distal segment
    • Inertia is the body's tendency to resist acceleration
  23. Momentum
    • Quantity of motion
    • Linear: Momentum = mass x linear velocity (kg-m/sec)
    • Angular: Momentum = mass moment of inertia x angular velocity
  24. Impulse
    • amount of energy required to alter velocity or momentum
    • Linear: Impulse = force x time (newton-sec)
    • Angular: Impulse = torque x time
  25. Work
    • Work = force applied (N) x distance moved (m)
    • Units are Joules
    • W = F * s = m*a*s
    • s = linear displacement
    • F = m * a
    • Negative work: when the direction of movement is opposite the direction of the force applied
  26. Energy
    • The capacity to do work
    • Units in Joules
    • Kinetic: KE = 1/2 mass x velocity^2: KE = 1/2mv^2
    • Potential: PE = mass x acceleration due to gravity x heigh: PE = mgh
    • TE = KE + PE
  27. Power
    • Work done per unit of time
    • P = W/t
    • Joules/sec = watts
    • Function of applied force x velocity: P = Fv
  28. Impulse-Momentum relationship
    • Linear: F*t = m*∆linear velocity
    • Because:
    • momentum = m*v
    • F = m*a = (m*∆v)/t
    • Angular: T*t = mass moment of inertia *∆angular velocity

    if the time and mass are constant, and the force increases, the velocity must also increase
  29. Mechanical Advantage
    • MA = df/dr
    • MA = distance to force/distance to resistance
  30. Effort (Internal) Moment Arm
    Perpendicular distance between the fulcrum and the line of force of the effort
  31. Resistance (External) Moment Arm
    Perpendicular distance between the fulcrum and the line of force of the resistance
  32. First Class Lever
    • Fulcrum between the force and the resistance
    • like a seesaw
    • MA = df/dr
    • MA </=/> 1
    • ex: occiput on C1; open chain triceps contraction
  33. Second Class Levers
    • Resistance between fulcrum and effort force
    • like a wheelbarrow
    • MA = df/dr
    • MA >1
    • ex: calf muscles lifting heel
  34. Third Class Levers
    • Efferot force between fulcrum and resistance
    • like a catapolt
    • MA = df/dr
    • MA < 1
    • ex: most joints in the human body
    • allows for increased excursion
  35. Torque
    • Torque = force * perpendicular distance to the line of action
    • Torque = force * moment arm
    • Torque = moment of inertia * angular acceleration

    torque for M = My*IMA
  36. Lever Arm
    • Distance from the axis of rotation to the point of the applied force
    • length of a particular segment
    • fixed value
  37. Moment Arm
    • Perpendicular distance from the line-of-action to the axis of rotation
    • changes relative to the position of the arm
    • increasing moment arm increases torque
  38. Mass Moment of Intertia
    • Mass Moment of Inertia = an objects resistance to change in angular velocity
    • Angular equivalent of inertia (mass)
    • sum of all moments of inertia of all the mass particles the object contains
  39. Angular Momentum
    Angular momentum = moment of intertia x angular velocity
  40. Angular Work
    • Angular work = torque applied x angular distance moved
    • Concentric contraction = positive work
    • Eccentric contraction = negative work
    • Isometric contraction = no work
  41. Rotational Kinetic Energy
    RKE = 1/2 x mass moment of intertia x angular velocity^2 = 1/2Iw^2
  42. Angular Power
    • Rate of doing work: work done per unit of time
    • P = dW/dt
    • P = Tw
    • area under force curve gives power
  43. Inertia
    • An objects ability to resist change in velocity (acceleration)
    • Linear: mass
    • Angular: mass moment of inertia
  44. Force/Torque Acceleration Relationship
    • the amount of force to alter velocity (induce acceleration/deceleration)
    • Linear: Forcer = mass x acceleration
    • Angular: Torque = mass moment of intertia x angular acceleration

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