1.txt

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emm64
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155290
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1.txt
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2012-05-22 18:12:43
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S3
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S3 1
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  1. ´╗┐What are the routes of migration of neural crest cells?
    • 1. Sensory ganglia
    • 2. ANS ganglia
    • 3. Adrenal neurosecretory
    • 4. Non-neural (melanocytes)
  2. What is the sulcus limitans?
    • spinal/brainstem organization
    • ventral->motor
    • dorsal->sensory
  3. What are the 5 secondary vesicles?
    • Telencephalon-cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, optic nerves
    • Diencephalon-thalamus & hypothalamus
    • Mesencephalon-midbrain, basal ganglia (substantia nigra)
    • Metencephalon-pons & cerebellum, rostral cranial nerves
    • Myelencephalon-medulla, caudal cranial nerves

    • Prosencephelon: Telencephalon & Diencephalon
    • Rhombencephalon: Metencephalon & Myelencepthalon
  4. What are the 4 flexures?
    • telencephalic
    • cephalic
    • pontine-doesn't persist, organize 4th ventricle & positions of alar and basal plates
    • cervical
  5. What are the functional divisions of the cerebral cortex?
    • frontal-higher cognitive functions
    • parietal-spatial and navigation
    • temporal-auditory, speech, memory
    • occipital-vision
  6. What is the pathway of sensory information?
    • DRG->spinal->brainstem->thalamus->cerebral cortex
    • Trigeminal(tooth/face)->brainstem
  7. What are ependymal cells?
    ventrcular surface, choroid(epithelial) plexus
  8. What is the diff btwn oligodendrocytes and schwann?
    • oligo myelinate multiple
    • schwann-single axon
  9. What are 2 ways to increase conductance speed?
    axon diameter, insulation(myelination)
  10. What are microglia?
    • resident macrophages in CNS
    • derived from blood monocytes
    • enlarge, proliferate, phagocytose and secrete cytokines from insults
  11. What are the brain barrier systems?
    • 1. Blood-brain: tight junctions of endothelial
    • 2. Choroid cell: maintains CSF barrier
    • 3. Arachnoid: maintains fluid barrier
    • 4. Perineurial: surrounding peripheral nerves
  12. Within the meninges where are the major vessels that supply the brain?
    • in the subarachnoid space, send capillaries to brain tissue that are monitored by ASTROCYTES
    • Astrocytes have foot processes that surround capillary
    • exchange occurs in capillary endothelial tight junction with itself
  13. What are mengial extensions of peripheral nerves?
    • perineurium (around bundles of axons)
    • epineurium (around clusters of bundles)
  14. What is the ventricular system of the CNS?
    • fluid filled cavities, lined with ependymal cells
    • choroid plexus: tissue made of choroid epithelium(single, cuboidal w microvilli & mitochondria)and stroma consisting of CT and vessels(fibroblasts, small arteries, venous sinuses, fenestrated capillaries), secretes CSF
    • plexus found in lateral ventricles, 3, 4th ventricles
  15. What is the flow pattern of CSF?
    • 1. choroid plexus
    • 2. lateral ventricles
    • 3. intraventricular foramen (Monro)
    • 4. 3rd ventricle
    • 5. cerebral aqueduct
    • 6. 4th ventricle
    • 7. foramen of magendie & Luschka
    • 8. subarachnoid space
    • 9. CNS
    • 10. arachnoid villa (pressure)
    • 11. sagital sinus & venous circulation (internal jugular)
  16. What is hyprocephalus?
    • birth defect 1:500-1000
    • most common pediatric brain surgery
    • fatal if not treated
    • treatment: implant shunt to drain CSF to circulation

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