2.txt

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Author:
emm64
ID:
155291
Filename:
2.txt
Updated:
2012-05-22 17:19:22
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S3
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S3 2
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  1. ´╗┐What are the features of the spinal cord?
    • continuation of medulla through foramen magnum
    • 31 pairs of nerves (dorsal-sensory) (ventral-motor) pass through intervertebral foramena
    • spinal cord ends at L2
  2. Where is lumbar puncture/spinal tap taken from?
    L3/L4 (below where spinal cord ends)
  3. What are the key features at the end of the spinal cord?
    • conus medullaris: tapering terminal end at L2
    • cauda equina: horse tail of spinal nerves
    • filum terminale: extension that anchors within dural sheath
  4. What is radiculopathy?
    • compression of nerve in spine (herniation, bone spur, otseoarthritis, scoliosis, diabetes)
    • numbness, tingling, weakness
    • problem areas: C3, L4, L5 (lateral disk prolapse or compression)
  5. What are the spinal cord regions?
    • 31 segments of vertebral level exits
    • Cervical (8): brachial plexus, cervical enlargement (C3 max motor), C5 max forelimb
    • thoracic (12): trunk, intermediolateral horn enlargement (sympathetic) T5 small spinal, gross movement
    • lumbar (5): lumbar plexus, lumbar enlargement (L5-mostly gray, lower extremeity motoneurons)
    • sacral (5): sacral plexus (with L5), pelvic muscles, posterior lower limbs
    • coccygeal (1): with S4,5 innervate skin over coccyx and anus
  6. What is a morphogen?
    • molecule that diffuesed to form a concentration gradient and affects developing embryo
    • sonic hedgehog
  7. What is BMP?
    • growth factor or cytokines and metabologens induces bone & cartilage formation
    • orchestrate tissue architecture
  8. Where is the spinal cord derived?
    • neural plate (neuroectoderm)
    • forms nerual tube & excludes nerual crest cells which form DRGs
    • DRG: primary afferent sensory
    • orchestrated by morphogenic proteins, SHH, creat alar and basal plates
    • alar: dorsal sensory
    • basal: ventral motor
  9. What are Rexed's Laminae?
    • organization of gray matter of spinal cord
    • dorsal layers
    • ventral circles
    • I: pain, temp, proprioception & touch
    • II & III: substantia gelatinosa (same stimuli)
    • IV
    • IX: motor neurons in columns
    • X: visceral nocicption
  10. What is the somatotopic organization of spinal white matter?
    • representation of the body within the CNS
    • sacral & lumbar enter first then thoracic & cervical
    • ascending sensory
    • descending motor
    • dorsal colums:carry proprioceptive info
    • gracile faciculous: medial 2 dorsal column, carry info from sacral & lumbar
    • cuneate fasciculus: throracic & cervical
    • lateral corticospinal: ascend on same side (cervical medial, lumbar lateral)
    • spinothalmic tract: somatotopically (sacral lateral, cervical medial)

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