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  1. innate resistance
    geneticall predetermined resistnace
  2. immunity
    ability of host to counteract specific substances or organisms
  3. antigens
    foreign substances that interact with the immune system
  4. natural active
    immunity aquired naturally from infection
  5. natural passive
    from mother to fetus
  6. aftificial active
    from vaccination
  7. artificial passive
    immunoglobin injection
  8. vacines are made from
    • pathogens
    • attenuated, inactivated, and killed
  9. immune response
    accomplised by WBC derived from hemopoetic stem cells
  10. humoral immune response
    • mediated by b-cells derived from stem cells found in bone marrow
    • produce circulating antibodies found in the gamme globuin fraction of blood serum
    • defend against bacteria viruses and toxins in blood and lymph
  11. cell mediated immune response
    • mediated by tcells (wbc that mature in thymus gland)
    • defend against intercellular viruses, multicellular parasits, transplanted tissue, and caner cells
  12. antigen
    foreign substnaces, protiens, lipoprotiens and glycoprotiens
  13. antigenic determinants
    • protien of antigen which reacts with a specific antibody
    • many
  14. antibodies produced
    • by b cells in response to an antigen
    • 2 binding sites per molecule
  15. IgG
    most prevalent antiboy class
  16. IgM
    5 monomers involved in complemet fixation and agglutionation
  17. IgA
    secreated protects mucosa
  18. IgD
    antigen receptors on B cells
  19. IgE
    • bind to mast cells and basophils
    • alergic reaction
  20. antibody production
    • mature B-cells circulate in blood each producing a different antigen receptor
    • b-cells not needed die
    • activate when antigen reacts with antigen receptors
    • produce clone of plasma cells and memory cells
  21. helper t cells
    intereact between antigen presenting cell and b cell to activate b cell to produce plasma cells which secreates antibodies
  22. memory cells
    recognize antigen from previous which produces plasma cells faster
  23. t cells and b cells
    that react with self are destroyed during fetal development
  24. natural killer cells
    • kill virus infected cells, tumor cells and large parasites
    • not immunologically specific
  25. interleukins
    cytokines (chemical messanger) that allow leukeocytes to communicate
  26. interferons
    are cytokines that protect against viruses
  27. chemokines
    cause leukocytes to move to site of infection
  28. helper t cells activate
    • bcells
    • cytotoxic t cells
    • other helper t cells
  29. cytotoxic t cells
    • attack interacellular pathogens such as viruses, some bacteria, and multicellular parasites
    • attach to target cell release protien perforin which poles hold in target cell inducing death
  30. suppresor t cells
    • apprear to regulate immune response
    • subpopulation of helper cells
  31. activated macrophages
    • stimulated by ingestion of antigens and cytokines from helper t cells
    • aqquire enhnaced ability to digest via phagocytosis virus infected cells and intracellular bacteria infected cells
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final exam
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