Biology3 Lab12

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kjel
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155323
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Biology3 Lab12
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2012-05-22 21:53:16
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Biology3 Lab12
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  1. testcross
    the mating between an individual of unknown genotype for a particular character and an individual that is homozygous recessive for that character
  2. penetrance
    the likelihood that an individual with a given gene will express that phenotype
  3. polygenic inheritance
    the inheritance of a phenotypic character in which the expression depends on the effect of many genes
  4. pedigree
    a diagram of a family history that follows the inheritance of a genetic trait over a number of generations
  5. the phenotype, type A blood, has which genotype(s)?
    what type of antibodies are in this type of blood plasma?
    • IAIA or IAi
    • antibodies against B
  6. the phenotype, type B blood, has which genotype(s)?
    what type of antibodies are in this type of blood plasma?
    • IBIB or IBi
    • antibodies against A
  7. the phenotype, type AB blood, has which genotype(s)?
    what type of antibodies are in this type of blood plasma?
    • IAIB
    • no antibodies in blood plasma
  8. the phenotype, type O blood, has which genotype(s)?
    what type of antibodies are in this type of blood plasma?
    • ii
    • antibodies against A and B
  9. codominance
    the expression of two different alleles of a gene in a heterozygote
  10. what is the Rh factor?
    why is it called "Rh"?
    • a different blood antigen
    • named for the Rhesus monkey, where this antigen was first identified
  11. why is Rh positive fetus at risk if it has a Rh negative mother?
    what is done to prevent the mother's immune response?
    • the mother's body could form antibodies to attack the fetus as if it were a germ; hemolytic disease
    • Rho(D); immune Globulin, is injected to suppress the immune response
  12. what is the ratio of males to females predicted for offspring in a human mating?
    1:1
  13. mutation
    any permanent, heritable change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA
  14. name 5 X-linked recessive disorders
    • red-green colorblindness
    • hemophilia
    • duchenne muscular dystrophy
    • androgen insensitivity syndrome
    • fragile X mental retardation
  15. nondisjunction
    an accident in meiosis or mitosis in which a pair of homologous chromosomes or a pair of sister chromotids fail to separate at anaphase
  16. the karyotype: 47, XXY
    phenotype: tall male
    underdeveloped gonads, infertile, learning difficulties
    are indicative of which syndrome?
    Klinefelter syndrome
  17. the karyotype: 45,X
    phenotype: short, female, webbed neck, broad chest
    infertile, delayed sexual maturation, reduced intelligence
    are indicative of which syndrome?
    Turner syndrome
  18. the karyotype: 47, XXX
    phenotype: usually tall female
    usually normal sexual development, learning difficulties
    indicative of which syndrome?
    Trisomy X syndrome
  19. the karyotype: 47, XYY
    phenotype: tall male
    normal sexual development, normal intelligence
    indicative of which syndrome?
    XYY syndrome
  20. Barr body
    • a densely stained mass in the nucleus of the cell that represents the inactive X chromosome(s)
    • the total number of Barr bodies in a cell is equal to the total number of Xs minus 1
  21. X chromosome inactivation
    the shutting down of the majority of genes on all but one X chromosome in a cell
  22. codon
    a three nucleotide sequence that specifies a particular amino acid
  23. name three ways in which DNA differs from RNA
    • DNA vs RNA
    • deoxyribose vs ribose; sugar
    • thymine vs uracil; base
    • double vs single; strand
  24. genetic code
    a table that shows which mRNA codons code for which amino acid

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