CH. 8- taste terms

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reneli415
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15536
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CH. 8- taste terms
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2010-04-21 13:22:30
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taste terms
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CH. 8- mastication and deglutition (taste terms)
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  1. Gustation
    a complex and critical component of chewing, sucking, and swallowing(CSS).
  2. Taste Buds (cells)
    taste receptors which contain chemoreceptors for gestation
  3. Chemoreceptors
    neural receptors that respond when specific chemicals come in contact with them.
  4. Papillae
    prominences on tongue. there are: filiform(dominant formation of tongue, appear small pink or gray threads, making dorsum look rough, include taste sensors and mechanoreceptors), fungiform(bright red found interspersed with filiform on tip/sides), vallate(large v-shaped formation of circles on posterior dorsum, typically ~12, each has "moat"), and foliate(on lateral margins, sparsely present).
  5. Taste Pore
    opening in lingual epithelium that houses taste cells (permits isolation of sample of tasted substance).
  6. Microvilli
    small, hairlike fibers projecting from taste cell into taste pore. holds taste pores in place.
  7. 5 basic tastes
    sweet, salty, sour, bitter, and umami("meaty" or protein like). tastes can be sensed all over the tongue, although some are localized preponderance of taste sensors. umami perceived most readily on tip/ least on velum. mediated by VII facial nerve, IX glossopharyngeal nerve, and X vagus nerve.
  8. Responses to Taste
    we all "crave" certain tastes and these tastes will elicit salivation, ingestive responses, tongue protrusion, release of insulin, mastication, and deglutition. bitter and sour tastes typify poisons, often eliciting protective response like gagging, coughing, apnea, and salivation. tastes can elicit motor responses(gag) that may or may not be under volitional(conscious) control. each response has components of swallow embedded within it.
  9. Olfaction
    plays vital role in appetite and taste. molecules arise from food pass over olfactory chemoreceptors to increase magnitude of taste perception. olfactory sensors arise from olfactory bulb(in cranial space) and have short life and continual replacement lasting ~ 60 days. sensors are found in epithelial lining of upper posterior nasal cavity. there are small cilia protruding from sensors, they are highly specialized in they transduce molecular stimulant into perception of smell. info from the olfactory region of cortex routes through thalamus, relaying to frontal lobe of cerebral cortex(orbital region). olfactory info from amygdala transmits to hyothalamus where info from entorhinal area terminaes in hippocampus with in temporal lobe. info reaching orbitofrontal region of cerebral cortex appears involved in olfactory discrimination.

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