Med-Surg Exam 6

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mel26704
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155465
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Med-Surg Exam 6
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2012-05-23 12:04:07
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Respiratory: chapters 30 & 31
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  1. The _______, or throat is a 5 inch tube extending from the back of the mouth to the esophagus.
    Pharynx
  2. The pharynx is divided into 3 parts:
    • nasal
    • oral
    • laryngeal
  3. Part of the pharynx that lies behind the nose:
    Nasopharynx
  4. Part of the pharynx that lies behind the mouth:
    oropharynx
  5. Part of the pharynx that lies behind the larynx:
    laryngopharynx
  6. A passage for respiratory and the digestive systems is:
    Pharynx
  7. The ________ functions in the formation of sounds, especially vowel sounds.
    Pharynx
  8. Tonsils are located in the:
    pharynx
  9. The air passage between the pharynx and the trachea is the:
    larynx
  10. The _________ contains the vocal cords and several types of carilage, including the thyroid cartilageand the epiglottis.
    larynx
  11. The _________ acts like a lid to help prevent aspiration of food into the trachea. It is located in the _________.
    epiglottis, larynx
  12. Folds of mucous membranes attached to cartilage; extend from the front to the back of the larynx:
    Vocal cords
  13. Vocal cords produce sound when:
    air from the lungs causes a rapid, repeated opening and closing of the glottis
  14. A 4-5 inch tube descending from the larynx into the bronchi:
    Trachea
  15. Tube made of cartilage, smooth muscle, and connective tissue lined by a layer of mucous membrane:
    trachea
  16. A passageway for air to reach the lungs:
    trachea
  17. Passage way for air to and from the lungs:
    Bronchi
  18. Two primary ________ split to the right and left from the trachea:
    Bronchi
  19. The _______ bronchus is shorter and wider and runs straigher up and down than the _______ bronchus.
    Right, left
  20. Larger ________ divide into smaller, or secondary, ________; divide again into smaller tertiary ________.
    Bronchi, bronchi, bronchi
  21. Type of bronchi that divides into smaller bronchioles:
    tertiary bronchi
  22. _________ bronchi divide into smaller _________, which lead into tiny air sacs called __________ in the lungs:
    tertiary, bronchioles, alveoli
  23. Tiny air sacs in the lungs:
    alveoli
  24. Where does the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide take place?
    Through the walls of the alveoli
  25. _______ are located in right and left sides of the thoracic cavity within the chest wall.
    Lungs
  26. The ________ divides the abdominal cavity and the thoracic cavity.
    Diaphragm
  27. The right lung has how many lobes?
    3
  28. The left lung has how many lobes?
    2
  29. The membrane that covers the lungs:
    pleura
  30. A sac containing a small amount of fluid that acts as a lubricant for the lungs when they expand and contract:
    pleura
  31. Air entering the lungs:
    Inspiration
  32. Air leaving the lungs:
    expiration
  33. Muscles relax and the chest returns to normal size during:
    expiration
  34. For normal breathing, ______ mL of air is inhaled and exhaled.
    500 mL
  35. Temporary interruption in the normal breathing pattern in which no air movement occurs:
    apnea
  36. Difficulty breathing, or shortness of breath:
    dyspnea
  37. Difficulty with breathing in a lying position:
    Orthopnea
  38. Located in the medulla and controls breathing:
    Respiratory center
  39. Stimulated by changing levels of carbon dioxide and oxygen in arterial blood:
    Respiratory center
  40. ___________ located in the aorta and carotid artery monitor the pH and amount of carbon dioxide and oxygen in the bloodstream.
    Chemoreceptors
  41. A receptor that responds to a change in the chemical compounds PaCO2 and pH:
    chemoreceptors
  42. Regulates the rate and rhythm of respirations:
    medulla
  43. Regulates the depth of respirations:
    pons
  44. Normal ratio of respirations to heartbeat is:
    4:1
  45. Deep regular sighing respirations with an increase in respiratory rate; panting and long grunting respirations; air hunger; often seen with diabetic acidosis and renal failure:
    Kussmaul's respirations
  46. Coarse crackles:
    Cause:
    Disorders:
    • Cause: Fluid in airways
    • Disorders: Pulmonary edema, bronchitis, pneumonia
  47. Fine crackles:
    Cause:
    Disorders:
    • Cause: Alveoli popping open on inspiration
    • Disorders: HF, atelectasis
  48. Wheezes:
    Cause:
    Disorders:
    • Cause: Narrowed airways
    • Disorders: Asthma
  49. Stridor:
    Cause:
    Disorders:
    • Cause: Airway obstruction
    • Disorders: Obstruction form tumor or foreign body
  50. Pleural friction rub:
    Cause:
    Disorder:
    • Cause: Inflamed pleura rubbing together
    • Disorders: Pleurisy, lung cancer, pneumonia, pleural irritation
  51. Diminished lung sounds can be heard in patient's with:
    Emphysema, hypoventilation, obesity, muscular chest wall
  52. Absence of breath sounds could be caused by what disorders?
    Pneumothorax, pneumectomy
  53. Diagnostic test used to detect alkalosis or acidosis and alterations in oxygenation status:
    ABG analysis
  54. Normal value of Pa02:
    It's high in:
    It's low in:
    • 75-100 mm Hg
    • It's high in: hyperventillation
    • It's low in: impaired respiratory function
  55. Normal value for PaCO2:
    It's high in:
    It's low in:
    • 35-45 mm Hg
    • It's high in: impaired gas exchange
    • It's low in: hyperventilation
  56. Normal value for pH:
    It's high in:
    It's low in:
    • 7.35-7.45
    • It's high in: respiratory alkalosis with low PaCO2
    • It's low in: respiratory acidosis with high PaCO2
  57. Normal value for HCO3-:
    It's high to:
    It's low to:
    • 22-26
    • It's high to: buffer PaCO2 in acidosis
    • It's low to: buffer PaCO2 in alkalosis
  58. Oxygen saturation:
    It's high in:
    It's low in:
    • 95%-100%
    • It's high in: hyperventilation
    • It's low in: impaired respiratory function
  59. Test performed to identify pathogenic microorganisms, cancer cells:
    Sputum specimen
  60. Tests performed on a sputum specimen:
    • C&S
    • Acid-fast test
    • cytologic specimens
  61. A test that gives information about the size and location of the heart and pulmonary structures; identifies presences of lesions, foreign bodies or fluid:
    Chest x-ray
  62. Most common views of a chest x-ray are:
    AP and lateral
  63. Test used to evaluate lung function that involves the use of a spirometer to diagram air movement:
    PFT
  64. An examination that allows visualization of trachea and bronchi; MD is able to see abnomalities, take tissue for biopsy, suction for secretions for examination:
    Bronchoscopy
  65. Insertions of a needle into the pleural space:
    Thoracentesis

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