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What is the difference between Interphase in Mitosis and Meiosis?
- Interphase is the development stage where it is multiplying and building up sister chromatids, which is not visible.
- It is the same for mitosis and meiosis.
What is the difference between Prophase in Mitosis and Meiosis?
- In prophase, the nuclear envelope dissolves, and the chromosomes condense together and become visible.
- In Meiosis, it is the same plus there is some crossover.
What is the difference between Metaphase in Mitosis and Meiosis?
- Metaphase is when the chromosomes align along the equator from each other.
- In Meiosis, homologous chromosomes align across the equator from each other.
What is the difference between Anaphase in Mitosis and Meiosis?
- In anaphase spindle fibers attach at the centromeres and pull apart the sister chromatids.
- In meiosis, it is the same accept the spindle fibers pull apart the homologous chromosomes.
What is the difference between Telephase in Mitosis and Meiosis?
- In telephase, a new nuclear envelope forms and the cell wall disappears.
- In meiosis, it is the same as mitosis.
What happens in Meiosis II?
The same as mitosis, just without interphase.
What is the main difference between Mitosis and Meiosis?
- Mitosis is cell division (growth) 1 cell (8n) goes to 2 cells (8n)- ploidy level does not change.
- Meiosis is cell reproduction (sexual reproduction) 1 cell (8n) goes to 4 cells (4n) because recieving half from each parent.
What happens in Transcription?
- DNA is turned into RNA and RNA is turned to protein.
- The TATA boxe starts 25 base pairs upstream and copies the coding strand and substitutes T for U. and then that strand leaves the nucleus and goes to the cytoplasm for translation.
What happens in Translation?
The ribosomes read turns into codons AUG-methianine always 1st, hooks together with the rest. There are 20 amino acids that hooks together to form a chain which is a protein.
What is an allele?
A dominant that is donated in half by both parents.
What is a Genotype?
The combination of dominant and recessive alleles.
What does haploid mean?
A cell that is a half of the diploid cell or ploidy level.
What are homologous chromosomes?
They are the same genes as what is in the other string of genes, but not necessarily the same alleles just the same genes in same locations.
What is a phenotype?
It is the trait that is expressed and seen.
What is a Centromere?
it is where the sister chromatid is attached.
what is a chromosome?
a string of DNA.
What is a gene?
DNA that is transcribed into RNA.
What is a sister chromatid?
What is the genotype and phenotype for an Independent Dominant punnett square?
- Genotype: 1:2:1
- Phenotype 3:1
What is the genotype and phenotype for an Dependant Dominant punnett square?
- Genotype: 4:2:2:2:2:1:1:1:1
- Phenotype 9:3:3:1
How do you figure out the generation outcomes for cross breedings.
- F0 is 1 in the middle
- F1 is 1 2 1
- F2 you take the number above multiply by 4 and add the number next to it to get six, that's the same for both sides if you're not rouging. If you're rouging you double the previous number each time, like the middle number.
How do you figure out the percentages for homozygous dominant, heterozygous dominant, and homozygous recessive?
- Homozygous dominant- take the RR and put that over the total of all the columns combined and divide them to get the %.
- Homozygous recessive- do the same thing.
- Heterozygous dominant- take the middle column and put it over the total and divide for the %.
What is the first of stage of seed production? What is it called and what is it denoted by?
The development stage. It is called breeder seed and is denoted by no tags.
What is the second stage of seed production? What is it called and what is denoted by?
it is the maitenance stage. It is called foundation seed and is denoted by white tags.
What is the third stage of seed production? What is it called and what is it denoted by?
It is called the Multiplication stage. The seed is called registered seed and is denoted by purple tags.
What is the fourth stage of seed production called? What is called, and how is it denoted?
It is called the Distribution stage. It is called certified seed and is denoted by blue tags.
Assuming we are workin with flower color (C red and c white). The C denotes a ______ while a c denotes a ______. A CC individual is ______ for flower color, while a Cc individual is _____ for flower color. If I have a field of Cc individuals, that field is ______ for flower color. If I have a field of Cc and CC individuals, that field is _____ for flower color. If a flower color is a codominant trait, the Cc individuals will have a _____ flower color. If flower color is a dominant trait, the Cc individuals will have a _____ flower color.
Dominant, recessive, red, pink, homogeneus, heterogeneus, pink, red.
Blue flower color is caused by two processes called (A)_____ and (B)______. (A) converts DNA to (C)______ and (B) converts (C) to ________. The cell structure that makes (A) happen is called(D) ________ and the cell structure that makes (B) happen is called (E)_____. (D is looking for a (F)___ and then the begining of a gene is ____ base pairs downstream of the (F). The (D) makes a copy of the coding strand of DNA replacing_____ for ______. This copy is called (G)______ and moves from the _____ of the cell to the _____ of the cell where (B) occurs. In (B), the (E) read the (C) in three base pair units called (H)_____. Each (H) responds to and (I) ____ ____. The first (H) of a (G) is always_____ and corresponds to (I) _____. Each (I) is delivered ot the (E) by a_____. When (B) is complete, the string of (I) folds onto itself and is called a ______.
Transcription, translation, RNA, proteins, RNA polymerase, ribosome, TATA box, 25, coding, thymine, uracil, RNA, nucleus, cytoplasm, codons, amino acid, AUG, methionine, tRNA, protein.
Using an octaploid (8N) organism, mitosis (which occurs in ___ cells) starts with one cell (that is ___ N) and ends with ___ cells (that are ___ N). Meiosis (which occurs in ___ cells) starts with one cell (that is ___ N) and ends with ___ cells (that are ___ N). Reduction of ploidy occurs in ___ phase of ___.
Somatic, 8, 2, 8, reproductive, 8, 4, 4, anaphase, meiosis I.
The first phase of a plant life cycle is called the ____ phase. This phase lasts from ____ through ____ and can last up to ___ years, typically. The longest proven length of this phase is ____ years. the second phase of a plant life cycle is called the ____ phase. this phase is characterized by ____ growth and ____ sexual reproduction and can last up to ____ years. the third phase of a plant life cycle is called the ____ phase. This phase is characterized by ____ growth and ____ sexual reproduction and is fairly short. The final phase is called the _____ phase. This phase is characterized by ____ reproduction and can last up to _____ of years.
embryonic, fertilizaton, germination, weeks-70 years, 550, juvenile, rapid, no, 40, transition, slow, no, mature, sexual, thousands.
What is crossing-over, how does it occur, and why is it important?
Crossing over is when homologous chromosomes get together and swap random pieces of genes with each other. It is important because it allows for diversity within a species, thus making strong traits stronger and allowing the weak traits to die out.
I have a greenhouse with 10 benches (5'x25') and want to install and irrigation system like the one we did in lab. What radius heads should I use? How many full, 1/2, and 1/4 radius heads do I need to buy?
You should use 5"-6" heads. You should not buy any full heads. You will need 4- 1/4 radius heads , and 8- 1/2 radius heads. So in total you need 40- 1/4 radius heads and 80- 1/2 heads.
What do the terms true-to-name and true-to-type mean?
The term true-to-name means that the seed you bought will indeed be the seed that the package says that it is. The term true-to-type means that the seed will produce plants that look like they should and is free from contamination.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of asexual and sexual repoduction?
Sexual reproductionallows for diversity within a species and allows us to find different combinations that work. A disadvantage would be that sexual reproduction doesn't have a predictable outcome. Asexual reproduction allows us to clone, or duplicate the exact species that we like; it also allows us to take a lot of work out of crossing different species to get a desired effect, especially if we can get the plant to go into apomixis. A disadvantage of a sexual reproduction is that it is hard to prevent cross polination and ensure that the species stays pure.
How do you determine the different sides in a fixing genotypes problem.
You start with one in the middle at the top, then on the next column down, you have 1 2 1 one because you now have one of each from the selfing and two of the original. then to find the left (and right if not roguing) you multiply the number had by 4 and add the middle number, in this case equalling 6. If roging it is taken so it is 0*4+ the middle number equalling 2 for the right side if roging. Then continue on in the same way.
What is apomixis, why do plants do it in nature, and how could it make someone very rich?
It is asexual seed production; it does it because the plant is not fertlized and has little or no chance of doing natural sexual repoduction; it could make some one rich in that once you get the species where you want it, you only have to apomictic it instead of doing 10 generations of crossing everytime.
What are the 4 methods discussed in class for preventing cross pollinated species from pollinating the wrong pollen donor?
- Isolation: plant 1 mi. away from where insects can get to it, and 2 miles from where the wind can get it, maybe plant trees around it.
- Buffers: plant a buffer crop around the the crop that is undesirable to insects, and tall buffers for preventing wind pollination.
- Male sterility: plant only sterile male crops around the crop concerned or make the males sterile.
- Bagging flowers: as flower develops, put a plastic bag over the flower and shake to pollinate to control the pollination yourself.
I was hiking around Mexico an dfound a corn plant that produced butter flavored popcorn. However, that was its only good quality. How, through breeding, do I incorporate that trait into the normal corn population that is sold to farmers? Why go through all that work? Discuss problems with inbreeding and how those are addressed.
To get that incorporated you would have to cross the original parent with a different higher quality of corn that has other desirable qualities for several generations and rogue out the undesirables. If you go through all of that work, you produce something that is highly desired and thus paid for, especially if you can get it to go apomictic. Inbreeding would be caused by pollen from other species getting into your crop from animals, insects, or the wind. To eliminate this problem you can plant a barrier crop to prevent biotic vectors or the wind from getting to your crop, or you can bag the crop.
What are the 17 Macro and Micronutrients?
C B H O P K I N S B Fe Cu Zn Mo Mn Mg Cl Co. (Ni)
What do the main nutrient deficiencies look like?
- N- uniform chlorosis (yellowing)- old leaves (where manifested 1st)
- P- purpling- manifested in old leaves 1st
- K- burned edges- manifested in old leaves.
- Fe- interveinal chlorosis- mainifested in new leaves (mobile)
How do you find out how much fertilizer to buy?
- find the area needed
- set up proportation so that the amount needed of element is on top over 1000 ft squared.
- set up another proportion with 100 lbs and put the number of element will be there on bottom (K and P need to be multiplied- K(.83) P(.44)
- then set up another proportion with the total sq. footage on top.
- then cross multiply and divide to find how much to buy.
How do you find out how much of the other elements will be found in the fertilizer used?
- you set a proportion up with the results from how much to buy on top and the total sq. footage on the bottom.
- Then set up another proportion with the other lbs. of the element found in the fertilizer (found from the multiplication of before.) then put that over 100 lbs. of fert.
- then set up another proportion with 1000 ft on top and x on the bottom.
- Then cross multiply and divide for the answer.
What is the difference between short day, long day, and day neutral plants?
Long day needs less than 12 hrs. of darkness for the flowering process, short day needs more than 12 hrs. of darkness for the flowering process, day neutral plants will flower either way, they don't care how much they get one way or the other.
What is day length?
it is a mechanism that controls flowering.
In greenhouse heating, what are some pros. and cons. of each kind?
- Unit heaters- fairly cheap, but tends to have uniformity problems used with fans or convection tubes to create better uniformity.
- Tubes- cheapest but has exhaust/ and thus ethelene gas problems which cause the plants to die and rot.
- Radient heat- expensive, but short wave radiation similar to sun works really well, is more fuel efficient, and can keep your greenhouse 5-10 degrees cooler (uses radiation instead of heat to grow plants)
- Geothermal- hot water used, depending on the area can be a really economical and easy way to heat your greenhouse.
What are the 4 kinds of cuttings? and when is the best time to take them? and why use each?
- Hardwood cuttings- take them in late fall-winter, can creat more volume, is taken during time that isn't generally busy, cna leave sitting, hardest to root.
- Semi-hardwood- Taken late summer-early fall, easier to get to root, take leaves off, so doesn't suck up so much water.
- Softwood- taken late spring-early summer, taken during busiest time of the year, easiest to get to root, finnacky.
- Herbaceous- Taken any time of year, has to be an herbaceous species.
what are the 8 steps in the rooting wound response?
- first a necrotic plate forms- for protection
- second auxin accumulates behind the n. plate- always traveling down from the apical point.
- third dedifferentioation occurs (undifferentiated "stem cells" when done)
- four a (optional) a callus or mass of undifferentiated cells forms
- fourth undifferentiated cells gets a signal (from auxin)
- fifth cell differentiates and starts mitosis
- sixth root primordia forms
- seventh cells connect to the vascular system
- eight the root emerges
what are the 3 types of stem cuttings?
- stem: a stem with several nodes- makes adventitious roots
- leaf: a leaf blade with or without petioles
- leaf bud: a stem with one node
What are detached scion grafts?
What are approach grafts?
What are types of apical grafts?
- whip and tongue
what are types of side grafts?
what are types of bark grafts?
What are the pros and cons of using slow release fertlizer in contrast to quick release fertilizer?
- Slow release is not dissolved in water and is available over a long amount of time, you can put a lot more on then you normally would- it won't burn, but it is generally more expensive.
- Quick release dissolves in water and is immediately available to the plant, you only want to put out 1 lb. of max of N per 1000 sq. ft.