chapter 21, UTI, cystitis

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chapter 21, UTI, cystitis
2012-05-23 16:25:06
chapter 21 UTI cystitis

chapter 21, UTI, cystitis
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  1. How does bacterial contamination of urine usually occur
    retrograde movement of microorgamisms
  2. what is an ascending UTI infection
  3. enters the kidneys through blood and may cause pyelonephritis
    blood-borne infection
  4. What are 2 types of UTI
    • cystisis
    • pyelonephritis
  5. What is the most common cause of UTI
    E. coli from fecal contamination
  6. Describe E. coli
    • gram-negative bacilli
    • normal intestinal flora
  7. What helps prevent one from getting a UTI
    • washout phenomenon
    • bactericidal effect of urea and low pH
    • ureterovesical junction closes bladder(no reflux)
    • prostate secreations-antimicrobial
    • mucin layer- has mucopolysaccaride
  8. What increases ones chances of a UTI
    • preagnancy
    • scar tissue
    • congenital defects
    • reanal calculi
    • vesicoureteral relux
  9. Why are women more commonly infected with UTI
    • shorter urethra
    • easy for fecal contaminents to enter
    • frequent irritation-tampons,hygeine deodorants
    • sexually active
    • elderly & postmenopausal= less mucin
    • estrogen decreases-mucin decreases
    • changes in periurethral envirment-antibiotics
  10. How does mucin play a role in protecitng form UTI
    provides a barrier between transitional epithelium and bacteria
  11. what is found in the normal female flora of the periurethral
  12. What causes UTI in males
    • older males w/prostatic hypertrophy and retention of urine
    • teste or prostate infections that have spread
  13. What are common causes of UTI for both sexes
    • incontinence-urine retention
    • stasis of urine-urine obstruction
    • immunosuppresion-decreased resistence
    • diabetes-glycosuria, glucose=food for bacteria
    • noscomial infections-cystoscopy, catheters
  14. inflammation of the bladder
    most common UTI
  15. what is the patho of cystitis
    • bladder wall and urethra are inflammed
    • bladder capacity reduced
  16. what are the signs of cystitis
    • lower abdominal pain
    • frequent and urgent urination
    • dysuria-pain
    • bacteriuria,hematuria,pyuria
    • cloudy urine-leukocytes
    • foul smell
    • fever,maliase,nausea
    • leukocytosis
    • bladder spasms
    • asymptomatic
    • pelvic & lower back pain=ascending infection
  17. what are the diagnostic test for cystitis
    • History
    • Urinalysis-C&S, RBC, WBC
  18. How are infections diagnosed by a culture
    specific organism counts of 100,000 bacteria/ml of urine
  19. What are the complications of cystitis
  20. What is the treatment for cystitis
    • antibiotics
    • fluid increase
    • prophylactic measure-cranberry juice
    • follow up urinalysis
  21. what is the treatment for cystitis that most people fail to do
    follow up urinalysis
  22. what is the prognosis for cystitis
  23. What is a warning sign of an ascending infection
    pelvic and lower pack pain