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Name the four chambers of the heart.
- Right atrium
- Right ventricle
- Left atrium
- Left ventricle
What vessels enters the right atrium?
- Superior vena cava (SVC)
- Inferior vena cava (IVC)
What vessel does the right ventricle expel blood into?
The pulmonary trunk (pulmonary artery)
What type of blood is found in the pulmonary artery and where is it heading?
Deoxygynated blood is found in the pulmonary artery and it heads to the lungs for gas exchange.
What type of blood is found in the superior/inferior vena cava?
Deoxygynated blood. Blood from the body regions superior to the diaphragm come from the SVC. Blood from the body regions inferior to the diaphragm come from the IVC.
What type of blood is found entering the left atrium and which vessel carries it?
Oxgynated blood is found in the pulmonary veins, which enter the left artrium.
The left ventricle carries what type of blood and where is it expelled?
The left ventricle carries oxygynated blood and it is expelled into the aorta.
The two ventricles are divided by?
The inter-ventricular septum.
Starting from the LV, describe the path blood takes.
LV-aorta-body-SVC/IVC-RA-RV-pulmonary trunk-lungs-pulmonary veins-LA.
- = through
Name the three types of values found in the heart and their locations.
The semilunar values are found in the aorta and pulmonary trunk.
- The Mitral valve is found in the left ventricle.
- The Tricuspid value is found in the right ventricle.
These last two are also known as the atrioventricular values.
What creates the lup-dup sound in the heart?
the lup-dup sound is created by the values opening and closing.
A heart attack is a result of?
Blockage (occlusion) in the coronary artery. Once the cardiac cell dies, they are gone forever!
What removes low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) from our vessel walls and why is that important?
High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) remove LDLs from our vessel walls.
It is important because it prevents occlusion of our vessels, which may lead to a heart attack.
What is maladaptive and adaptive hypertrophy of the heart?
In maladaptive hypertrophy the heart enlarges, irreversilbily, in response to dead heart cells, which make the heart work harder. Eventually, the heart will fail.
In adaptive hypertrophy the heart enlarges, reversibly, due to the bodies demand to physically stress onset by excerise or pregency.
Why does high blood pressure (BP) lead to heart attacks?
High BP leads to heart attacks because the the BP damages the vessel walls, tunic intima. Everything circulated within the damaged area will be stuck there and leads to occlusion.
What is the difference between Systole and Distole?
- Systole is when the ventricles contract.
- Distole is when the ventricles are relaxed.
What does tachycardia and bradycardia mean?
- Tachycardia - fast heart beating
- Bracycardia - slow heart beating
What does ischemia mean?
Pronounced IS-key-me-a ;)
Ischemia means no blood flow.
What is the Sinoatrial Node (SA node)?
The Sino-atrial node is the heart's natural pacemaker.
What is the Atrioventricular node (AV node)?
The atrioventricular node is the gateway from which the ventricals recieve the signal to contract as one unit.
Name the Sequence of Exitation?
*pg 676-677, Marieb, E. & Hoehn, K. (2010). Human Anatomy & Physiology, 8th ed. Pearson Education, Inc.
- 1. SA Node excites the atriums
- 2. AV Node delay the exitment for .1s and then pass it to
- 3. AV bundle, down the interventricular septum and then to
- 4. RT/LT bundles and up the lateral side of ventricular
Is the AV node a pacemaker?
Do atriums & ventricles contract at the same time and why?
No. To give each time fill with blood.
Which nervous system does the SA node respond too?
The SA node responds to the sympathetic system, i.e. epinphrine, norepinephrine) which increase the heart rate.
It also responds to the parasympatic system with decrease the heart rate.
- P = atriums contracting
- QRS = ventricles contracting/atriums are relaxed
- T - ventricles & atriums are relaxed
How is the amount of blood measured?
- Cardic output = Stroke volume times Heart Rate.
- CO = SV*HR
- SV = amount of blood that leaves the heart/beat
- HR = the # of beats per mintue.
Name the three layers of the heart muscle.
- Epicardium - outmost layer
- Myocardium - middle layer
- Endocardium - intermost layer
What are the chordae tendinae?
Tiny white collagen cords which attach to the AV values and are anchored to the papillary muscles.
Name the five types of vessels found in the body.
- Artery - thickest vessel which push blood away from the heart
- Arterioles - which are smaller arteries.
- Capillaries - allows material exchange
- Venules - are formed when capillaries unite push blood into the heart
- Veins - when venules unite
Why is hypertension known as the silent killer?
Hypertension is known as the silent killer because it shows no symptoms, until it's too late.
What is the connection with NaCl (salt) and blood pressure?
NaCl increases the bodies retention of water, which increases the blood pressure in the body. Prolonged increase leads to hypertension and eventually to a heart attack.
Which organs are prone to damage due to hypertention?
The brain, eyes, and kidney are prone to damage due to hypertention.
How many blood pressure readings should be taken to test for hypertenstion?
Three consective BP readings should be taken.
How does high blood pressure effect the vessels?
High blood pressure damage the tunic intima of the vessels, which is an irreversable damage.
Describe the Renin-Angiotensin System.
Low BP causes the kidney to produce Renin. Renin goes to the liver, which produce angiotensisen & angiotensien I. Angiotensien I goes to the lung, which converts it into Angiotensien II. Angiotensien II goes back into the kidney, which directs the kidney to retain water, thus increasing BP.
Name the three layers of the vessel.
- Tunic intima - innermost layer
- Tunic media - middle layer (of smooth muscle/elastic fibers)
- Tunic externa - outermost layer (of collagen fibers)
Trace Respiratory System:
The Nasal & Oral cavity - pharynx - larynx - Trachea - Bronchos - Terminal bronchioles - Respiratory Bronchioles - alveoli
What prevents food from getting into the trachea?
The epiglottis located on top of the trachea.
What prevents the trachea from collapsing?
The C rings (cartilage) prevents the trachea from collapsing.
What two types of cells are found along the upper respiratory system?
- Goblet cells which produce mucus
- Cilla which line the trachea wall
What is the difference between the terminal bronchioles and respiratory bronchioles?
Respiratory bronchioles is closer to the gas exchange.
Name the three types of cells found in the alveoli
- Pneumocyte type I = cell wall
- Pneumoncyte type II = surfactant (moisten the cell wall)
- Macrophages = a type of white blood cell
Where does the upper and lower respiratory system begin and end?
- Upper from nasal/oral cavity to larynx
- Lower from trachea to the alveolus
What is tidal volume?
Volume of gas inspired & exspired in an unforced respiratory cycle.
What is inspiration reserve volume?
max volume of gas that can be inspired during forced breathing, plus tidal volume.
What is expiration reserve volume?
max volume of gas that can be expired during forced breathing, plus tidal volume.
What is residual volume?
The volume of gas the remains in the lung after max expiration.
What causes an Asthemia attack?
An allergic reactions, which causes the trachea to contract, thus closing the air passageway.
Name the four parts of the Urinary System.
- A pair of kidneys
- A pair of ureter
- A Urinary bladder
- A urethra
Where is the trigone found?
It is the triangle area in the urinary bladder, where the ureters and urethra join. It forms a triangle.
What kind of toxins does the kidney expel?
- Metabolic waste:
- Urea (protein degradation)
- Uric acid (from purine)
- Creatinine (muscle by producted)
- Excess water
- Excess ions
Name the eight parts of the kidney.
- Renal pyramid
- Minor calyx
- Major calyx
- Renal pelvis
Trace the collection of fillrate in the kidney.
From the renal pyramid, to the minor calyx, to major calyx, passed the hilum into the renal pelvis and down the ureter.
What is the functional unit of the kidney?
Where is the nephron located within the kidney?
The glomerulus and proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) are located in the cortex area.
The Loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and collection duct are located in the medulla area.
Name the vessels around the kidney! Do it! Do it now!
Renal artery to Segmental artery to Interlobar artery to Arcuate artery to Interlobular artery to Afferent arteriole to Glomerulus to Efferent arteriole to vasa recta to Interlobular vein to Arcuate vein to Inerlobar vein to Segmental vein to Renal vein.
Name the five Nephron processes.
- 1. Blood travels from the Afferent arteriole into the Glomerulus.
- 2. Waste is collected from the Glomerulus in the Bowman's capsule
- 3. Then blood flows out through the Efferent arteriole.
- 4. At the Bowman's capsule it's filtered throught the PCT, LH, DCT, and finally through the collection duct.