The case must involve an actual case or controversy:
-It must not seek merely an advisory opinion or be collusive.
-It must be ripe. That is, the P must have been harmed or faces a threat of harm.
- -It must not be moot. That is, the case must be real and live at all stages of review, unless:
- 1. the controversy is capable of repetition and yet evades review;
- 2. the action is voluntarily stoped, but capable of being resumed; or
- 3. the class representative's case has become moot and other member's cases are still viable.
- And, P must have standing. That is, P must have suffered an actual specific injury (not neccessarily economic), caused by the government, and which would be remedied by a favorable decision. See also 3rd Party Standing
and Organization's Standing.