Bio Final PART I
Card Set Information
Bio Final PART I
Describe the polarity of the water molecule
The oxygen side is partially negative and the hydrogen side is partially positive.
For a sugar-water solution, which component is the solute and which component is the solvent?
Water = solvent; sugar = solute
How are solutions categorized according to the pH scale?
pH = 7 (neutral) pH<7 (acid) pH>7 (base)
What is a mixture of bacterial cells in water called? You actually made this during the E. coli experiment
What is a covalent bond?
when atoms link by sharing electrons
Why is Carbon special?
Carbons can bond to one another and form thousands/millions of molecules.
What are the monomers of proteins? What are the monomers of starch?
AMINO ACIDS; SIMPLE SUGARS
What happens during chemical reactions?
ATOMS ARE REARRANGED.
Study the 2 graphs on p. 51 and be able to identify an energy-absorbing reaction profile and an energyreleasing reaction profile.
What are 3 key facts about enzymes?
Enzymes are proteins.Enzymes work best at a specified pH.The shape of an enzyme allows it to do its job.
Who coined the word “cells” when he observed cork through the microscope?
What feature distinguishes a prokaryote/bacterium?
The cell lacks a nucleus.
What is the function of the nucleus?
Which structure makes proteins?
Which organelle converts chemical energy stored in food into usable energy (ATP)?
Which organelle breaks down organelles that are no longer useful?
What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
It helps a cell keep its shape
Why does an animal cell immersed in distilled water burst?
OSMOTIC PRESSURE CAUSES WATER TO MOVE INTO THE CELL.
Which organelle will be in plant cells BUT NOT in animal cells?
What is the diffusion of water called?
Be able to identify a graphic that shows diffusion/facilitated diffusion/active transport.
Where is chlorophyll embedded?
IN THE THYLAKOID MEMBRANE
Why are the majority of plants green?
THE DO NOT ABSORB GREEN LIGHT/THEY REFLECT GREEN LIGHT
Given a graphic of a chloroplast, like the one found on p. 231, be able to identify the thylakoids & the stroma.
What are the products of photosynthesis?
OXYGEN AND HIGH-ENERGY SUGARS
Which pathway represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?
H2O -> NADP+->Calvin Cycle (LIR)
Where do the Light Dependent Reactions (LDR) take place?
What are the products of the Light Independent Reactions (LIR)?
ATP, NADPH, Oxygen gas
Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
Why does a candle confined to a jar burn loner if a green plant is also in the jar?
Oxygen produced by the plant allows the candle to burn longer.
Which of the following is the correct sequence of events?
Glycolysis -> Krebs Cycle -> ETC (electron transport)
Why is cellular respiration called an aerobic process?
IT REQUIRES OXYGEN
What are the products of cellular respiration?
Water & Carbon Dioxide & ATP
How many ATPs does cellular respiration produce from 1 Glucose molecule?
What are the starting reactants/substrates for the Krebs Cycle?
PYRUVIC ACID WHICH IS BROKEN DOWN TO CARBON DIOXIDE
What is the waste product of Krebs Cycle?
Where is the location of the ETC in eukaryotes?
INNER MITOCHONRIAL MEMBRANE
Which molecules „feed‟ the ETC with high-energy electrons?
NADH & FADH2
Where does lactic acid fermentation occur?
What happens during fermentation?
NAD+ is recycled allowing glycolysis to continue on-and-on
Why are most breads „spongy‟?
Gas production by ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
What happened if Griffith‟s bacterial experiments?
Harmless bacteria changed into harmful bacteria.
What did Avery conclude about bacterial transformations?
DNA IS THE TRANSFORMING FACTOR/MOLECULE.
Which nucleotide could be in DNA?
Deoxyribose + phosphate + cytosine/guanine/adenine/thymine
In DNA how do the nitrogenous bases link to form the rungs of the DNA „ladder‟?
C-G & A-T (Chargaff‟s Rule)
During DNA replication, if the template strand has a code CTAATGT then what is the complimentary strand that is constructed?
-How did the famous female scientist Rosalind Franklin help to identify the structure of DNA?
She made x-ray diffraction photos of the DNA molecule.
What does DNA replication produce?
Two DNA molecules – each one with a new strand side and an old strand side
During DNA replication, which anabolic enzyme adds nucleotides to the growing new strand side?
DNA POLYMERASE (also used in PCR)
In which cells is the accurate transmission of information most important?
SEX CELLS/GAMETES (since this DNA is inherited to the next generation)
What happens when there is a deletion mutation?
Genetic information is lost.