Bio Final PART I

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Danielvu28
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155541
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Bio Final PART I
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2012-05-23 19:03:59
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  1. Describe the polarity of the water molecule
    The oxygen side is partially negative and the hydrogen side is partially positive.
  2. For a sugar-water solution, which component is the solute and which component is the solvent?
    Water = solvent; sugar = solute
  3. How are solutions categorized according to the pH scale?
    pH = 7 (neutral) pH<7 (acid) pH>7 (base)
  4. What is a mixture of bacterial cells in water called? You actually made this during the E. coli experiment
    SUSPENSION
  5. What is a covalent bond?
    when atoms link by sharing electrons
  6. Why is Carbon special?
    Carbons can bond to one another and form thousands/millions of molecules.
  7. What are the monomers of proteins? What are the monomers of starch?
    AMINO ACIDS; SIMPLE SUGARS
  8. What happens during chemical reactions?
    ATOMS ARE REARRANGED.
  9. Study the 2 graphs on p. 51 and be able to identify an energy-absorbing reaction profile and an energyreleasing reaction profile.
    a
  10. What are 3 key facts about enzymes?
    Enzymes are proteins.Enzymes work best at a specified pH.The shape of an enzyme allows it to do its job.
  11. Who coined the word “cells” when he observed cork through the microscope?
    ROBERT HOOKE
  12. What feature distinguishes a prokaryote/bacterium?
    The cell lacks a nucleus.
  13. What is the function of the nucleus?
    STORES DNA
  14. Which structure makes proteins?
    RIBOSOME
  15. Which organelle converts chemical energy stored in food into usable energy (ATP)?
    MITOCHONDRION
  16. Which organelle breaks down organelles that are no longer useful?
    LYSOSOME
  17. What is the function of the cytoskeleton?
    It helps a cell keep its shape
  18. Why does an animal cell immersed in distilled water burst?
    OSMOTIC PRESSURE CAUSES WATER TO MOVE INTO THE CELL.
  19. Which organelle will be in plant cells BUT NOT in animal cells?
    CHLOROPLAST
  20. What is the diffusion of water called?
    OSMOSIS
  21. Be able to identify a graphic that shows diffusion/facilitated diffusion/active transport.
    a
  22. Where is chlorophyll embedded?
    IN THE THYLAKOID MEMBRANE
  23. Why are the majority of plants green?
    THE DO NOT ABSORB GREEN LIGHT/THEY REFLECT GREEN LIGHT
  24. Given a graphic of a chloroplast, like the one found on p. 231, be able to identify the thylakoids & the stroma.
    a
  25. What are the products of photosynthesis?
    OXYGEN AND HIGH-ENERGY SUGARS
  26. Which pathway represents the flow of electrons during photosynthesis?
    H2O -> NADP+->Calvin Cycle (LIR)
  27. Where do the Light Dependent Reactions (LDR) take place?
    THYLAKOID MEMBRANES
  28. What are the products of the Light Independent Reactions (LIR)?
    ATP, NADPH, Oxygen gas
  29. Where does the Calvin Cycle occur?
    STROMA
  30. Why does a candle confined to a jar burn loner if a green plant is also in the jar?
    Oxygen produced by the plant allows the candle to burn longer.
  31. Which of the following is the correct sequence of events?
    Glycolysis -> Krebs Cycle -> ETC (electron transport)
  32. Why is cellular respiration called an aerobic process?
    IT REQUIRES OXYGEN
  33. What are the products of cellular respiration?
    Water & Carbon Dioxide & ATP
  34. How many ATPs does cellular respiration produce from 1 Glucose molecule?
    36
  35. What are the starting reactants/substrates for the Krebs Cycle?
    PYRUVIC ACID WHICH IS BROKEN DOWN TO CARBON DIOXIDE
  36. What is the waste product of Krebs Cycle?
    CARBON DIOXIDE
  37. Where is the location of the ETC in eukaryotes?
    INNER MITOCHONRIAL MEMBRANE
  38. Which molecules „feed‟ the ETC with high-energy electrons?
    NADH & FADH2
  39. Where does lactic acid fermentation occur?
    MUSCLE CELLS
  40. What happens during fermentation?
    NAD+ is recycled allowing glycolysis to continue on-and-on
  41. Why are most breads „spongy‟?
    Gas production by ALCOHOLIC FERMENTATION
  42. What happened if Griffith‟s bacterial experiments?
    Harmless bacteria changed into harmful bacteria.
  43. What did Avery conclude about bacterial transformations?
    DNA IS THE TRANSFORMING FACTOR/MOLECULE.
  44. Which nucleotide could be in DNA?
    Deoxyribose + phosphate + cytosine/guanine/adenine/thymine
  45. In DNA how do the nitrogenous bases link to form the rungs of the DNA „ladder‟?
    C-G & A-T (Chargaff‟s Rule)
  46. During DNA replication, if the template strand has a code CTAATGT then what is the complimentary strand that is constructed?
    GATTACA
  47. -How did the famous female scientist Rosalind Franklin help to identify the structure of DNA?
    She made x-ray diffraction photos of the DNA molecule.
  48. What does DNA replication produce?
    Two DNA molecules – each one with a new strand side and an old strand side
  49. During DNA replication, which anabolic enzyme adds nucleotides to the growing new strand side?
    DNA POLYMERASE (also used in PCR)
  50. In which cells is the accurate transmission of information most important?
    SEX CELLS/GAMETES (since this DNA is inherited to the next generation)
  51. What happens when there is a deletion mutation?
    Genetic information is lost.

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