Psych Number 2

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Psych Number 2
2012-05-23 23:07:25
Psych McM

Exam two 6-10
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  1. Chomsky
    LAD- Language Acquisition Device- all people are prewired to learnd language
  2. Bahaviorists
    Reason we learn to speak is because we are reinforced for making sounds that resemble speech
  3. Overextensions
    Tendency to apply a word to objects that are inappropriate for the words meaning (ie-all boys as dads)
  4. Underextensions
    Tendency to apply a word too narrowly
  5. Telegraphic Speech
    The use of content words without grammatical markers such as articles, auxillary verbs, and other connectives
  6. Wenicke's Area
    Left Temporal lobe, involved in language comprehension
  7. Broca's Area
    Left Frontal Lobe, involved in speech production
  8. Crying
    Infant's only way of communication
  9. Cooing
    "ooh's" and "aah's"
  10. Babbling
    Happens between 4-6 months
  11. Gestures
    When the infant is more coordinated
  12. Expanding
    Restating in a linquistically sophisticated form, what a child has said.
  13. Recasting
    Rephrasing something the child has said, perhaps turning it into a question or restating the child's immature utterance in the form of a fully grammatical sentence.
  14. Labeling
    Identifying the name of objects
  15. Phoneme
    Basic sound units/building blocks of sound. The difference between pot and spot is "p" the phoneme
  16. Morpheme
    When a word can't be broken down anymore. Dog is one s in another. together, dogs.
  17. Syntax
    Sentence structure
  18. Semantics
    Meaning of a word
  19. Pragmatics
    Appropriate use of language in different culture
  20. Child Directed Speech
    Language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences. This is used when talking with young children, especially babies- it has the importance of capturing the infant's attention and maintaining communication
  21. Infant Intelligence
    NOT very correlated with young kids' IQ tests
  22. Implicit Memory
    Automatic, long term. You don't have to consciously think about it; it's a part of you. Order: encoding, storage, retrieval. ie- manual driving.
  23. Explicit Memory
    Conscious memory of facts and experiences. Babies don't show signs of it until 6-12 months. Under developed hippocampus.
  24. Selective Attention
    You select what to pay attention to
  25. Inattentional Blindness
    Moonwalking Bear
  26. Blindness
    The guy asking for directions and switching during it
  27. Repetition Blindness
    A bird in in the bush read regularly
  28. Joint Attention
    When two individuals focus on the same object
  29. Object Permanence
    Piagetian term for understanding that objects continue to exist, even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched.
  30. Violation of Expectation
    Infants first see an event happen as it normally would. Then, the event is changed, often in a way that creates a physically impossible event. Infants look longer at teh changed event, indicating they are surprised by it.
  31. A-not-B Error
    This occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place (A) rather than the new hiding place (B) as they progress into substage 4 in Piaget's sensorimotor stage.
  32. Schemes
    In Piaget's theory, actions of mental representations that organize knowledge
  33. Adaptation
    • The changing of a schema, two different ways.
    • 1. Assimilation- adding to knowledge without changing previous information
    • 2. Accomodation- adding to knowledge with changing previous information
  34. Organization
    Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher order system, a more smoothly functioning cognitive system.
  35. Equilibrium
    A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage to another stage
  36. Deferred imitation
    Imitation that occurs after a delay of hours of days
  37. Piaget's Six Substages
    • 1. Simple Reflexes
    • 2. First habits and primary circular reactions
    • 3. Secondary Circular Reactions
    • 4. Coordination of Secondary circular reations
    • 5. Tertiary Circular Reaction, Novelty, and Curiosity
    • 6. Internalization of Schemas
  38. Simple Reflexes
    0-1 Months Coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors.
  39. First habits and primary Circular reactions
    1-4 Months. Coordination of sensation and two types of schemas; habit and primary circular reactions
  40. Secondary Circular Reactions
    4-8 Months. Infants become more object oriented, moving beyond self-preoccupation; repeat actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results
  41. Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions
    8-12 Months. Coordination of vision and touch. Hand eye coordination; coordination of schemas and intentionality
  42. Tertiary Circular Reactions, Novelty, and Curiousity
    12-18 Months. Infants become intrigued by the many things they can make happen to objects; they experiment with new behavior
  43. Internalization of Schemas
    18-24 Months. Infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form enduring mental representations.
  44. National Longitudinal Study (know in detail)
    • Started in 1991. Studied physical health, cognitive development, and socioemotional development.
    • Results: Family factors are stronger and more consistent predictors of a wide variety of child outcomes than are child-care experiences. The worst outcomes for children occur when both home and child care setting are poor quality.
  45. Strange Situation (know in detail)
    The hope was to provide info about the infant's motivation to be near the caregiver and the degree to which the caregiver's presence provides the infant with security and confidence.
  46. Emotion Theorist
    • Freud- Thought infants become attaced to person or object that provided oral satisfaction
    • Harlow- Didn't agree with Freud. He did the monkey study, wire and cloth momma monkey. Feeding does NOT create attachment
    • Bowlby- Infants instinctively attach to humans and eventually distinguish between a known person and a stranger
    • Ainsworth- although attachment to a caregiver intensifies midway through the first year, it's likely that the quality of the baby's attachment experience varies. (strange situation)
  47. Bowlby and Ainsworth
    You can't respond enough to infant crying in the first year. A quick, comforting response to the infant's cries in an important ingredient in the development of a strong bond between the infant and caregiver.
  48. John Watson
    Argued that parents spend too much time responding to infant crying. As a consequence, parents reward and increase its incidence
  49. Infants Preference to Moms v. Dads
    Normal environment, no preference. If placed into a stressful situation, the mother was chosen.
  50. Temperment
    • Easy Child- generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy and adapts easily to new experiences
    • Difficult Child- reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, slow to accept change
    • Slow-to-Warm-Up Child- has low activity, is somewhat negative, displays low intesity of mood
  51. Bowlby's Attachment Phases (know in detail)
    • 1. Birth-2 months: infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figurs
    • 2. 2-7: Attachment becomes focues on one figure, usually primary caregiver. baby starts to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar faces.
    • 3. 7-24: Specific attachments develop; baby actively seeks contact with regular caregivers.
    • 4. 24 on beyond: children become aware of other's feelings and goals, which are taken into account when the child is forming his own actions.
  52. Goodness of Fit
    Refers to the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands with which the child must cope.
  53. Primary Emotions
    Present in humans and other animals; appears in the first 6 months...surprise, interest, joy, sadness, anger, fear, disgust
  54. Self- Conscious Emotions
    Require self awareness that involves consciousness and a sense of "me"...jealousy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt
  55. Parenting Effects
    • Secure---> responsive and sensitive to needs
    • Avoidant---> parents not around or rejecting, little physical contact
    • Resistant---> Parents are inconsistent
    • Disorganized---> often neglected by parents or physically abused.
  56. Height and Weight (know in detail)
    • 1st year- Rapid Growth, slows down during the rest
    • 2 1/2 year- 5-7 pound a year
    • Preschool years- grow into head size, body fat growth slows trunks of body lengthens
    • Girls have more fatty tissue, boys have more muscle
  57. Kellogg's Drawing
    • Age 2, basic drawing skills
    • Age 2-3, Placement stage
    • Age 3, Shape stage
    • Age 3-4, Design stage, mix shapes
    • Age 4-5, Pictorial Stage
  58. Brain Development (know in detail)
    Neuronal Changes- There are more conncetoins and myelination (shen the nerve cells become covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells). The increase in size is due to the increase in number and size of nerve endings and receptors, whcih allows for more effecive communication.

    Structural Changes- In local patterns within the brain. In 3-6 year olds, most rapid change is in the frontal lobe. From 6- puberty...temporal and parietal, especially language and spatial relations

    brain and cognitive development increases in memory and rapid learning
  59. Stages of Sleep (know in detail)
    • Hypnagocic Sleep
    • Sleep Spindles
    • Slow-Wave Sleep
    • Very Deep Sleep
    • REM Sleep
  60. Sleep Problems
    • ~ 40% of kids experience them
    • If they have them they are more likely to use alcohol, have attention problems, more injuries requiring medical attention, impaired brain development, and being overweight.
  61. Nightmares

    Night Terrors
    Result of too much stree during awake hours

    Accompanied by rapid heart rate and breathing, loud screams, heavy perspiration, physical movement. Little to no memory of it happening
  62. Somnambulism
    occurs in very deep sleep. 15% do it at least once. 1-5% regularly.
  63. Sleep Talking
    They are soundly sleeping, no reason to stop it from occuring
  64. Causes of Death
    • 1. #1 Car accidents
    • 2. Poverty Factors
    • - No prenatal care
    • - Unsanitary Conditions
    • - Lead poisoning
    • 3. Inadequate medical insurance
    • 4. Second-hand smoke
    • 5. Malnourished
    • 6. HIV/AIDS
    • - uneducated are 4x more likely to believe it is unaviodable. 3x that it is transferable.
  65. Private Speech
    • Vygotsky- Talking to onelself. Speech in not only for social communication but also for problem solving. Children use language to plan, guid, and monitor their behavior.
    • Children who do this are more likely to be more socially competent, attentive, and improve their performance more.
    • Piaget thought it to be immature
  66. Chunking
    A term referring to the process of taking individual untis of information and grouping them into larger groups.
  67. False Belief Tasks
    BandAid test
  68. Conservation
    Awareness that altering an object's or a substances basic properties stay the same even thought the appearance has been altered.
  69. Zone of Proximal Development
    Boundary between something kids can learn on their own compared to learning it with assitance
  70. Scaffolding
    Adjusting the level of guidance to fit the child's performances; where you help a child to do something they cant do on their own at first
  71. Berko's Language Studies
    • Study children's knowledge of morphological rules
    • Wug experiment
  72. Short Term Memory
    Individuals retain info for up to 30s if there is no rehearsal
  73. Kids Testifying in Court
    Susceptibility to suggestion, different levels of susceptibility. Interviewin techniques can alter statements. Leading questions
  74. Pragmatics
    Learn Culturally specific rules of conversation and politeness, realize the need to adapt speech in different settings
  75. Child Centered Kindergarten
    Involves the whold child by considering the child's pyshical, cognitive, and socioemotional development and addressing the child's needs, interests, and learning styles
  76. Montessori Approach
    Children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and specifically designed curriculum
  77. Developmentally Appropriate Practive
    Education that focuses on the typical development patterns of children as well as the uniqueness of each child
  78. Developmentally inappropriate practice
    ignores the concrete, hands on approach to learning
  79. Project Head Start
    Compensatory education designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire skills and ecperiences that are importatn for school success
  80. Japan
    Schools do not teach reading, writing, math. They teach persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group.
  81. Americans
    Say preschool is a good head start
  82. Piagets Stages of Moral Reasoning
    • 1. 4-7 yrs heteronomous morality- children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties of the world, no control by the people
    • 2. 7-10 yrs. Transition time showing signs of both the 1t and 3rd stage of morality
    • 3. 10 yrs. Autonomous Morality- Aware that rules and laws are created by people
  83. Baumrind's Parenting Styles
    Authoritarian- restrictive, controls and little verbal exchange. spand child freely, enforce without explanation. Children are unhappy and fearful, poor communication skills

    Authoritative- encourages children to be independent, places limits and controls for action, good communication betwee child and adult. Parents warm and nuturant to child. Children are cheerful

    Neglectful- parent is very uninvolved. Children have low self esteem, immature, may show delinquency

    Indulgent- no limits, give child what they want. Children dont learn respect for others, egocentric, problems with peers