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LAD- Language Acquisition Device- all people are prewired to learnd language
Reason we learn to speak is because we are reinforced for making sounds that resemble speech
Tendency to apply a word to objects that are inappropriate for the words meaning (ie-all boys as dads)
Tendency to apply a word too narrowly
The use of content words without grammatical markers such as articles, auxillary verbs, and other connectives
Left Temporal lobe, involved in language comprehension
Left Frontal Lobe, involved in speech production
Infant's only way of communication
"ooh's" and "aah's"
Happens between 4-6 months
When the infant is more coordinated
Restating in a linquistically sophisticated form, what a child has said.
Rephrasing something the child has said, perhaps turning it into a question or restating the child's immature utterance in the form of a fully grammatical sentence.
Identifying the name of objects
Basic sound units/building blocks of sound. The difference between pot and spot is "p" the phoneme
When a word can't be broken down anymore. Dog is one s in another. together, dogs.
Meaning of a word
Appropriate use of language in different culture
Child Directed Speech
Language spoken in a higher pitch than normal with simple words and sentences. This is used when talking with young children, especially babies- it has the importance of capturing the infant's attention and maintaining communication
NOT very correlated with young kids' IQ tests
Automatic, long term. You don't have to consciously think about it; it's a part of you. Order: encoding, storage, retrieval. ie- manual driving.
Conscious memory of facts and experiences. Babies don't show signs of it until 6-12 months. Under developed hippocampus.
You select what to pay attention to
The guy asking for directions and switching during it
A bird in in the bush read regularly
When two individuals focus on the same object
Piagetian term for understanding that objects continue to exist, even when they cannot directly be seen, heard, or touched.
Violation of Expectation
Infants first see an event happen as it normally would. Then, the event is changed, often in a way that creates a physically impossible event. Infants look longer at teh changed event, indicating they are surprised by it.
This occurs when infants make the mistake of selecting the familiar hiding place (A) rather than the new hiding place (B) as they progress into substage 4 in Piaget's sensorimotor stage.
In Piaget's theory, actions of mental representations that organize knowledge
- The changing of a schema, two different ways.
- 1. Assimilation- adding to knowledge without changing previous information
- 2. Accomodation- adding to knowledge with changing previous information
Piaget's concept of grouping isolated behaviors and thoughts into a higher order system, a more smoothly functioning cognitive system.
A mechanism that Piaget proposed to explain how children shift from one stage to another stage
Imitation that occurs after a delay of hours of days
Piaget's Six Substages
- 1. Simple Reflexes
- 2. First habits and primary circular reactions
- 3. Secondary Circular Reactions
- 4. Coordination of Secondary circular reations
- 5. Tertiary Circular Reaction, Novelty, and Curiosity
- 6. Internalization of Schemas
0-1 Months Coordination of sensation and action through reflexive behaviors.
First habits and primary Circular reactions
1-4 Months. Coordination of sensation and two types of schemas; habit and primary circular reactions
Secondary Circular Reactions
4-8 Months. Infants become more object oriented, moving beyond self-preoccupation; repeat actions that bring interesting or pleasurable results
Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions
8-12 Months. Coordination of vision and touch. Hand eye coordination; coordination of schemas and intentionality
Tertiary Circular Reactions, Novelty, and Curiousity
12-18 Months. Infants become intrigued by the many things they can make happen to objects; they experiment with new behavior
Internalization of Schemas
18-24 Months. Infants develop the ability to use primitive symbols and form enduring mental representations.
National Longitudinal Study (know in detail)
- Started in 1991. Studied physical health, cognitive development, and socioemotional development.
- Results: Family factors are stronger and more consistent predictors of a wide variety of child outcomes than are child-care experiences. The worst outcomes for children occur when both home and child care setting are poor quality.
Strange Situation (know in detail)
The hope was to provide info about the infant's motivation to be near the caregiver and the degree to which the caregiver's presence provides the infant with security and confidence.
- Freud- Thought infants become attaced to person or object that provided oral satisfaction
- Harlow- Didn't agree with Freud. He did the monkey study, wire and cloth momma monkey. Feeding does NOT create attachment
- Bowlby- Infants instinctively attach to humans and eventually distinguish between a known person and a stranger
- Ainsworth- although attachment to a caregiver intensifies midway through the first year, it's likely that the quality of the baby's attachment experience varies. (strange situation)
Bowlby and Ainsworth
You can't respond enough to infant crying in the first year. A quick, comforting response to the infant's cries in an important ingredient in the development of a strong bond between the infant and caregiver.
Argued that parents spend too much time responding to infant crying. As a consequence, parents reward and increase its incidence
Infants Preference to Moms v. Dads
Normal environment, no preference. If placed into a stressful situation, the mother was chosen.
- Easy Child- generally in a positive mood, quickly establishes regular routines in infancy and adapts easily to new experiences
- Difficult Child- reacts negatively and cries frequently, engages in irregular daily routines, slow to accept change
- Slow-to-Warm-Up Child- has low activity, is somewhat negative, displays low intesity of mood
Bowlby's Attachment Phases (know in detail)
- 1. Birth-2 months: infants instinctively direct their attachment to human figurs
- 2. 2-7: Attachment becomes focues on one figure, usually primary caregiver. baby starts to distinguish between familiar and unfamiliar faces.
- 3. 7-24: Specific attachments develop; baby actively seeks contact with regular caregivers.
- 4. 24 on beyond: children become aware of other's feelings and goals, which are taken into account when the child is forming his own actions.
Goodness of Fit
Refers to the match between a child's temperament and the environmental demands with which the child must cope.
Present in humans and other animals; appears in the first 6 months...surprise, interest, joy, sadness, anger, fear, disgust
Self- Conscious Emotions
Require self awareness that involves consciousness and a sense of "me"...jealousy, empathy, embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt
- Secure---> responsive and sensitive to needs
- Avoidant---> parents not around or rejecting, little physical contact
- Resistant---> Parents are inconsistent
- Disorganized---> often neglected by parents or physically abused.
Height and Weight (know in detail)
- 1st year- Rapid Growth, slows down during the rest
- 2 1/2 year- 5-7 pound a year
- Preschool years- grow into head size, body fat growth slows trunks of body lengthens
- Girls have more fatty tissue, boys have more muscle
- Age 2, basic drawing skills
- Age 2-3, Placement stage
- Age 3, Shape stage
- Age 3-4, Design stage, mix shapes
- Age 4-5, Pictorial Stage
Brain Development (know in detail)
Neuronal Changes- There are more conncetoins and myelination (shen the nerve cells become covered and insulated with a layer of fat cells). The increase in size is due to the increase in number and size of nerve endings and receptors, whcih allows for more effecive communication.
Structural Changes- In local patterns within the brain. In 3-6 year olds, most rapid change is in the frontal lobe. From 6- puberty...temporal and parietal, especially language and spatial relations
brain and cognitive development increases in memory and rapid learning
Stages of Sleep (know in detail)
- Hypnagocic Sleep
- Sleep Spindles
- Slow-Wave Sleep
- Very Deep Sleep
- REM Sleep
- ~ 40% of kids experience them
- If they have them they are more likely to use alcohol, have attention problems, more injuries requiring medical attention, impaired brain development, and being overweight.
Result of too much stree during awake hours
Accompanied by rapid heart rate and breathing, loud screams, heavy perspiration, physical movement. Little to no memory of it happening
occurs in very deep sleep. 15% do it at least once. 1-5% regularly.
They are soundly sleeping, no reason to stop it from occuring
Causes of Death
- 1. #1 Car accidents
- 2. Poverty Factors
- - No prenatal care
- - Unsanitary Conditions
- - Lead poisoning
- 3. Inadequate medical insurance
- 4. Second-hand smoke
- 5. Malnourished
- 6. HIV/AIDS
- - uneducated are 4x more likely to believe it is unaviodable. 3x that it is transferable.
- Vygotsky- Talking to onelself. Speech in not only for social communication but also for problem solving. Children use language to plan, guid, and monitor their behavior.
- Children who do this are more likely to be more socially competent, attentive, and improve their performance more.
- Piaget thought it to be immature
A term referring to the process of taking individual untis of information and grouping them into larger groups.
False Belief Tasks
Awareness that altering an object's or a substances basic properties stay the same even thought the appearance has been altered.
Zone of Proximal Development
Boundary between something kids can learn on their own compared to learning it with assitance
Adjusting the level of guidance to fit the child's performances; where you help a child to do something they cant do on their own at first
Berko's Language Studies
- Study children's knowledge of morphological rules
- Wug experiment
Short Term Memory
Individuals retain info for up to 30s if there is no rehearsal
Kids Testifying in Court
Susceptibility to suggestion, different levels of susceptibility. Interviewin techniques can alter statements. Leading questions
Learn Culturally specific rules of conversation and politeness, realize the need to adapt speech in different settings
Child Centered Kindergarten
Involves the whold child by considering the child's pyshical, cognitive, and socioemotional development and addressing the child's needs, interests, and learning styles
Children are given considerable freedom and spontaneity in choosing activities and specifically designed curriculum
Developmentally Appropriate Practive
Education that focuses on the typical development patterns of children as well as the uniqueness of each child
Developmentally inappropriate practice
ignores the concrete, hands on approach to learning
Project Head Start
Compensatory education designed to provide children from low-income families the opportunity to acquire skills and ecperiences that are importatn for school success
Schools do not teach reading, writing, math. They teach persistence, concentration, and the ability to function as a member of a group.
Say preschool is a good head start
Piagets Stages of Moral Reasoning
- 1. 4-7 yrs heteronomous morality- children think of justice and rules as unchangeable properties of the world, no control by the people
- 2. 7-10 yrs. Transition time showing signs of both the 1t and 3rd stage of morality
- 3. 10 yrs. Autonomous Morality- Aware that rules and laws are created by people
Baumrind's Parenting Styles
Authoritarian- restrictive, controls and little verbal exchange. spand child freely, enforce without explanation. Children are unhappy and fearful, poor communication skills
Authoritative- encourages children to be independent, places limits and controls for action, good communication betwee child and adult. Parents warm and nuturant to child. Children are cheerful
Neglectful- parent is very uninvolved. Children have low self esteem, immature, may show delinquency
Indulgent- no limits, give child what they want. Children dont learn respect for others, egocentric, problems with peers