Biology3 FINAL

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  1. taxonomic hierarchy
    • domain
    • kingdom
    • phylum
    • class
    • order
    • family
    • genus
    • species
  2. 3 domains
    • bacteria
    • archaea
    • eukarya
  3. kingdoms of eukarya
    • protista -- single-celled, colonial, multicellular; prod & consm
    • fungi -- most multicellular; decomposers
    • animalia -- multicellular; consumers
    • plantae -- multicellular; producers
  4. dehydration
    a reaction that removes a molecule of water
  5. hydrolysis
    chemical reaction where water is added to break the bonds
  6. monosaccharide
    name 5
    • a carbohydrate consisting of one sugar molecule
    • pentose sugar (5-carbon sugar): ribose [has OH OH], deoxyribose
    • hextose: galactose, fructose, glucose
  7. disaccharides
    name 3
    • two monomer sugars linked together
    • sucrose: glucose + fructose
    • maltose: glucose and glucose
    • lactose: glucose and galactose
  8. polysaccharides
    the 4 types and their function
    • three or more sugars linked together
    • used for long term energy storage and structural support
    • glycogen: long term energy storage in animals
    • starch: long term energy storage in plants
    • cellulose: structural support in plants
    • chitin: outer covering of insects and crabs
  9. identify components of phospholipids
    • glycerol bonded to
    • 2 fatty acids (non polar and hydrophobic) and
    • 1 phosphate group (polar and hydrophilic)
  10. type of bonds that join amino acids?
    what groups form an amino acid?
    • peptide bonds
    • amino group -- R group -- hydrogen -- carboxylic acid group
  11. components of a nucleic acid:
    • pentose sugar-->
    • phosphate group-->
    • nitrogenous base
  12. population growth types
    • exponential growth: unlimited resources and no pressures; bacteria; j-shape curve
    • logistic growth: where a population tends to stabilize; reaches its carrying capacity; s-shape curve
  13. population dispersion:
    3 types
    • how organisms are arranged in a population based on environmental conditions and social interaction
    • clumped: more eyes, reduced predation risk, easier to find mate
    • uniform: evenly dispersed
    • random: position is dependent on other individuals
  14. key stone species
    • a species that plays a larger role in the community
    • ex. starfish eats muscles
  15. community
    a group of individuals living close enough to interact
  16. ecological niche
    all the factors that affect or are affected by an organism
  17. two types of mimicry
    • batesian: harmless animals may evolve to resemble poisonous ones
    • mullerian: two unpalatable and harmful organisms resemble eachother
  18. three types of symbiosis
    • commensalism: one species benefits and the other is unaffected
    • mutualism: both species benefit
    • parasitism: one species benefits and the other is harmed
  19. food chains and webs (4 trophic levels)
    • 1. producer
    • 2. primary consumer
    • 3. secondary consumer
    • 4. tertiary consumer
  20. 8 biomes
    • plant communities based on rainfall and temperature
    • tropical rain forest: little temp variation
    • savanna: rainy season/drought season; tall grasses, scattered shrubs
    • desert: some hot/some cold; plants adapt to store water
    • chaparral: mid-latitude, coastal, mild rain winter/hot dry summer
    • temperate deciduous forest: dense deciduous trees, moist cold winter/humid summer
    • coniferous: cone bearing trees, warm moist air/heavy snowfall
    • tundra: no tall shrubs or trees, cold, high winds
    • ocean: wide range light stratification
  21. flowers
    perfect vs imperfect
    complete vs incomplete
    • perfect: has both masculine, stamen, and feminine, carpel
    • imperfect: has either masculine or feminine
    • complete: has all four parts; stamens, carpel, petals, sepals
    • incomplete: lacks one or more flower part
  22. prokaryotic cells are comprised of these two groups
    • bacteria
    • archaea
    • no membrane enclosed organelles
    • flagellum for movement
    • cell wall
  23. cytoskeleton has these three types of protein fibers:
    • micro-filaments: thin fibers, 2 thin twisted strands
    • intermediate filaments: medium rope-like fibers
    • micro-tubules: thick fibers
  24. hypertonic
    more solute
  25. hypotonic
    less solute
  26. isotonic
    same solute
  27. transport
    3 types
    • passive: do not use energy, moves down the gradient (diffusion of a dye in water, or osmosis)
    • active: use stored chemical energy to move molecules across membranes, moves against the gradient
    • other: endo/exo/phago cytosis -- use energy but not "through" a membrane
  28. the products of photosynthesis:
    glucose and oxygen
  29. pathway of light dependent reaction
    • 1. light energy ejects electrons from a photosystem.
    • 2. photosystem pulls replacement electrons from water, releasing O2 and H+.
    • 3. electrons enter an electron transport chain in the thylakoid membrane.
    • 4. energy lost by the electrons as they move through the ETC cause H+ to be pumped from the stroma into thylakoid compartment. a thylakoid membrane gradient forms across the thylakoid membrane.
    • 5. another photosystem receives electrons from the ETC
    • 6. electrons move through a second ETC; NADPH is formed.
    • 7. H+ in the thylakoid compartments are propelled through interior of ATP synthases by their gradient across their thykaloid membrane.
  30. the products of glycolysis
    where does glycolysis take place?
    • 2 ATP (net)
    • 2 NADH
    • 2 pyruvate
    • in the cytoplasm
  31. name the products of the Krebs cycle
    where does the Krebs cycle take place?
    • 6 NADH
    • 4 CO2
    • 2 FADH2
    • 2 ATP
    • in the matrix of the mitochondria
  32. DNA replication; 3 step process:
    • 1. DNA helicase: a protein that separates helix by breaking H bonds between nitrogen bases
    • 2. DNA polymerase: a protein that reads template 3' to 5' and adds free nucleotides from 5' to 3'. Bonds phosphate to sugar to form backbone.
    • 3. DNA ligase: Thus, Okazaki fragments are created and connected by DNA ligase.
  33. DNA
    • deoxyribonucleic acid: double helix molecules
    • a polymer with genetic information
  34. gene
    a segment of DNA molecule that codes for a specific trait
  35. chromatin
    uncondensed structures made of DNA and found in the nucleus
  36. chromosomes
    condensed structure of DNA and proteins found in the nucleus with genes on it
  37. diploid (2n)
    a cell containing two complete sets of chromosomes, one from each parent
  38. haploid (n)
    a cell having a single set of unpaired chromosomes
  39. homologous chromosomes
    a pair of chromosomes that carry the same genetic information; almost always the same size and shape
Card Set:
Biology3 FINAL
2012-05-26 23:51:21
Biology3 FINAL

Biology3 FINAL
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