Class of Drugs

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Class of Drugs
2012-06-05 16:39:02

Generic name & Trade name
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  1. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibiting agents

    "pril" benazepril (Lotensin) lisinopril (Zestril) captopril (Capoten) enalapril (Vasotec) fosinopril (Monopril) moexipril (Univas) quinapril (Acupril) ramipril (Altace)
    • Treat primary & secondary HTN.
    • Inhibit conversion of angio 1 to angio 2.

    • SE;
    • hypotension, hacking cough, N/V, respiratory symptoms.

    • Interventions:
    • monitor VS, WBC, & electrolyte levels.
  2. Beta Adrenergic Blockers

    "olol" acebutolol (Monitan, Rhotral, Sectral) atenolol (Tenormin, Apo-Atenol, Nova-Atenol) esmolol (Brevibloc) metaprolol (Alupent, Metaproterenol) propanolol (Inderal)
    • Lower BP, HR, & CO
    • Treat migraine H/A, glaucoma, or prevent myocardial infarctions.

    • SE:
    • orthostatic hypotension, bradycardia, N/V/D, CHF, blood dyscrasias

    • Interventions:
    • Monitor lab values (protien, BUN, creatinine) that indicate nephrotic syndrome.
    • Monitor BP, HR & rhythm, signs of edema.
    • Teach pt. to; rise slowly, report bradycardia, dizziness, confusion, depression or fever, taper off the medication.
  3. Anti-infective drgus (Aminoglycosides)
    "cin" "mycin"
    gentamicin (Garamycin, Alcomicin, Genoptic) kanamycin (Kantrex) neomycin (Mycifradin) streptomycin (Steptomycin) tobramycin (Tobrex, Nebcin) amikacin (Amikin)
    Interfere with the protein synthesis of the bacteria, causing the bacteria to die.

    • SE:
    • ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity, seizures, blood dyscrasias, hypotension, rash.

    • Interventions:
    • Obatin H/O allergies
    • Monitor I&O, VS during infusion, therapeutic levels, S/S of nephrotoxicity & ototoxicity.
    • Maintain paten IV site.
    • Teach pt. to report changes in urinary elimination.
    • Monitor peak & trough levels
  4. Benzodiazepine drugs (Anticonvulsants/Antianxiety)
    "pam" "pate" "lam"
    ALL contain "azo" or "aze"
    clonazepam (Klonopin) diazepam (Valium)
    Used for their antianxiety or anticonvulsant effects.

    • SE:
    • drowsiness, lethargy, ataxia, depression, restlessness, slurred speech, bradycardia, hypotension, diplopia, nystagmus, N/A, constipation, incontinence, urinary retention, repiratory depression, rash, urticaria.

    • Interventions:
    • Monitor respirations, liver, kidney & bone marrow function, & signs of chemical abuse.
  5. Phenothiazine drugs (Antipsychotic/Antiemetic)

    "zine" chlopromazine (Thorazine), prochlorperazine (Compazine), trifluoperazine (Stelazine), Hydroxyzine (Vistaril), promethazine (Phenergan)
    • Used as antiemetics or neuroleptics.
    • Treat psychosis in those pt.'s with schizophrenia.
    • Phenergan (promethazine) & Compazine (prochlorperzine) are used to treat N/V.

    • Caution
    • Irritating to the tissue; use Z-track method via IM injection. If pt. is allergic to one of the phenothiazines, probably allergic to ALL OF THEM. If experiencing allergic reation or extrapyramidal effect, give Benadryl or Congentin.

    • SE:
    • extrapyramidal effects, drowsiness, sedation, orthostatic hypotension, dry mouth, agranulocytosis, photosensitivity, neuroleptic malignant syndrome.
  6. Glucocorticoid drugs
    "sone" "cort"
    prenisolone (Delta-Cortef, Prednisol), prednisone (Deltasone, Meticorten), betamethasone (Celestone, Betnesol), dexamethasone (Dexon, Dalaone), hydrocortisone (Cortef, Cortifoam), methylprednisolone (Solu-cortef, Depo-Medrol, Rep-Pred)
    • Used to treat conditions requiring suppression of the immune system and in Addison's disease.
    • Anti-inflammatory, anti-allergenic, and anti-stress effects.
    • Used for replacement therapy for adrenal insufficiency (Addison's disease); as immunosuppressive drugs in pot-transplant pt's; and to reduce cerebral edema associated with head trauma, neurosurgery, and brain tumors.

    • SE:
    • acne, poor wound healing, ecchymosis, bruising, petechiae, depression, flushing, sweating, mood changes, HTN, osteoporosis, diarrhea, hemorrhage.

    • NOTE
    • These drugs can cause Cushing's syndrome. Signs of Cushing's syndrome; moon faces, edema, elevated blood glucose levels, purple straie, wt. gain, buffalo hump, & hirsutism.

    • Interventions:
    • Monitor glucose levels, weigh the client daily, monitor BP & signs of infection.
  7. Antivirals
    "vir" acyclovir (Zovirax) ritonavir (Norvir), saquinovir (Invirase, Fortovase), abacavir (Ziagen)
    • Inhibit viral growth by inhibiting an enzyme within the virus.
    • Used in pt's with: herpetic lesions, AIDS, varicella infections (chickenpox), herpes zoster (shingles), herpes simplex (fever blisters), encephalitis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV).

    • SE:
    • N/V/D, oliguria, proteinuria, vaginitis, central nervous SE (less common); tremors, confusion, seizures, severe, sudden anemia.

    • Interventions:
    • Tell pt. to report rash, watch for signs of infection.
    • Monitor creatine level, liver profile, and bowel pattern before and during Tx.
  8. Cholesterol-lowering drugs
    "vastatin" atorvastatin (Lipitor), fluvastatin (Lescol), lovastatin (Mevacor), pravastatin (Pravachol), simvastatin (Zocar), rosuvastatin (Crestor)
    Lower cholesterol & triglyceride levels & to decrease the potential for cardiovascular disease.

    • Caution
    • Should not be taken with grapefruit juice and should be taken at night. The pt. should have regular liver studies to determine the presence of liver disease.

    • SE:
    • rash, alopecia, dyspepsia, liver dysfunction, muscle weakness (myalgia), H/A

    • Interventions:
    • Diet low in cholessterol & fat should be included in therapy.
    • Monitor cholesterol levels, liver profile, renal function.
    • Tell pt. to report visual changes b/c cataracts can occur in pt's taking "vastatins."
    • Monitor for muscle pain & weakness (Rhabdomyolysis - muscle wasting syndrome)
  9. Angiotensin receptor blocker drugs
    "sartan" valsartan (Diovan), candesartan (Altacand), losartan (Cozaar), telmisartan (Micardis)
    • Block vasoconstrictor- and aldosterone-secreting angiotensin II.
    • Treat primary or secondary HTN.
    • Drug of choice for pt.'s who cant handle SE of ACE inhibitors.

    • SE:
    • dizziness, insomnia, depression, angian pectoris, second-degree AV blcok, conjunctivitis, N/V/D, muscle cramps, neutropenia, cough.

    • Interventions:
    • Monitor BP & P, BUN, creatinine, electrolytes, & hydration status.
    • Tell the pt. to report edema in feet & legs daily.
  10. Cox 2 enzyme blocker drugs
    celecoxib (Celebrex) valdecoxib (Bextra)
  11. Histamine 2 antagonist drugs
    "tidine" cimetideine (Tagamet), famotidine (Pepcid), nizatidine (Axid), rantidine (Zantac)
    • Used to GERD, acid reflux, & gastric ulcers.
    • Inhibit histamine 2 release in the gastric parietal cells, therefore inhibiting gastric acids.

    • SE:
    • confusion, bradycardia/tachycardia, diarrhea, psychosis, seizures, agranulocytosis, rash, alopecia, gynecomastia, galactorrhea.

    • Interventions:
    • Monitor BUN levels.
    • Administer with meals.
    • If taking with antacids, take antacids one hour before or after taking these drugs.
    • Cimetidine may be prescribed in one large dose at bedtime.
    • Sucralfate decreases the effects of histamine 2 receptor blockers.
  12. Proton pump inhibitors
    "prazole" esomeprazole (Nexium), lansoprazole (Prevacid), Pantoprazole (Protonix), rabeprazole (Aciphex)
    • Suppress gastric secretion by inhibiting the hydrogen/potassium ATPase enzyme system.
    • Used in the Tx of gastric ulcers, indigestion, & GERD.

    • SE:
    • H/A, insomnia, diarrhea, flatulence, rash, hyperglycemia.

    • Interventions:
    • DO NOT crush Protonix. Use a filter when administering IV pantoprazole.
    • May take before meals for best absorption.
    • Monitor liver function.
  13. Anticoagulant drugs
    "parin" heparin sodium (Hepalean) enoxaparin sodium (Lovenox) dalteparin sodium (Fragmin)
    • Tx of thrombolytic disease.
    • Treat PE, MI, DVT, after coronary artery bypass surgery.
    • "parin" are heparin derivatives.
    • Should have a PTT check.
    • Antidote; protamine sulfate.

    • SE:
    • fever, diarrhea, stomatitis, bleeding, hematuria, dermatitis, alopecia, pruritus.

    • Interventions:
    • Blood studies (Hct and occule blood in stool), should be checked every 2 months.
    • Monitor PTT often for heaprin (therapeutic levels are 1.5-2.0x the control). No specific bleeding time done for enoxaparin (Lovenox).
    • Monitor platelet count. signs of bleeding, and infection.
  14. More Drug ID Helpers
    caine = anesthetics (Lidocaine)

    mab = monoclonal antibodies (Palivazumab)

    ceph or cef = cephalosporins (Cefatazime)

    cillin = penicillins (Ampicillin)

    cycline = tetracycline (Tetracycline)

    stigmine = cholinergics (Phyostigmine)

    phylline = bronchodilators (Aminophylline)

    cal = calciums (Calcimar)

    done = opiods