Unit 20.txt

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Cloe
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155582
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Unit 20.txt
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2012-05-24 01:31:33
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Pharmacology Otic Ophthalmic Infections
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Chapter 20 of the Pharmacology for Pharmacy Technicians textbook by Moscou/Snipe
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  1. Blepharitis
    Chronic eye disease that produces distinctive flaky scales that form on the eyelids & eyelashes.
  2. Conjunctivitis (pink eye)
    Common, self-limiting ailment that causes itching, burning and teary outflow.
  3. Cytomegalovirus retinitis
    Viral opportunistic infection of the eye that can cause pain and blindness
  4. Floaters
    Particles that float in the vitreous and cast shadows on the retina and appear as spots, cobwebs, or spiders
  5. Fusarium Keratitis
    Rare fungal infection that occurs in the soft contact lens wearers, can result in blindness
  6. Helminthes
    Parasitic worms that cause eye infection and blindness
  7. Herpes Simplex Keratitis
    Painful eye infection caused by herpes virus that can lead to blindness
  8. Iritis
    Inflammated Iris
  9. Keratitis
    Severe infection of the cornea that may be caused by bacteria or fungi
  10. Otitis Externa
    Inflammation of the ear canal or external ear
  11. Otitis Media
    Inflammation of the middle ear typically caused by viral or bacterial infection.
  12. Otorrhea
    Discharge coming from the external auditory canal or inside of the canal
  13. Photopsia
    Condition similar to floaters but with flashing lights
  14. Stye
    Painful lump on the eyelid caused by an acute self-limited infection of the oil glands
  15. Uveitis
    Serious eye condition that producew inflammation of the uvea and can cause scarring of the eye and blindness if untreated
  16. Blepharitis Treatment;
    • 1) Anti-infectives ointments
    • gentamicin, neomycin, tobramycin (Aminoglycosides)

    2)Corticosteroid Drops

    3) Artifical Tears
  17. Viral Conjunctivitis Treatment
    1) Self limiting; no treatment
  18. Bacterial Conjunctivitis Treatment
    • 1) aminoglycosides
    • 2) sulfonamides
    • 3) quinolones
    • 4) macrolides
  19. Keratoconjunctivitis (eye herpes) Treatment
    1) trifluridine
  20. Iritis Treatment
    1) Corticosteroids (to reduce inflammation)

    2) Mydriatics (to reduce painful swelling)

    3) Antivirals
  21. Keratitis Treatment
    • 1) Anti-infectives
    • 2) Antifungals
  22. Uveitis Treatment
    • 1) Corticosteroids
    • 2) Mydriatics
    • 3) Anti-infectives, -virals, -fungals
  23. Stye Treatment
    • 1) Self-limiting
    • 2) Keep Clean & Use Warm Compresses
  24. Opthalmic Aminoglycosides
    • 1) gentamicin: Garamycin
    • 2) tobramycin: Tobrex
  25. Opthalmic Sulfonamides
    1) sulfacetamide sodium: Blepth-10, Cetamide Oint.

    2) trimethoprim+polymyxin B: Polytrim
  26. Opthalmic Quinolones
    • 1) ciprofloxin: Ciloxan
    • 2) ofloxacin: Ocuflox
  27. Opthalmic Macrolides
    1) erythromycin
  28. Anti-infective+Corticosteroid Opthalmic Combos
    1) sulfacetamide+predisolone: Blephamide

    2) tobramycin + dexamethasone: Tobradex
  29. Cytomegalovirus retinitis Antiviral Treatment
    • 1) ganciclovir: Cytovene, Vitrasert
    • 2) valganciclovir: Valcyte
  30. Herpetic Eve Disease Treatments
    • 1) trifluridine: Viroptic
    • 2) acyclovir: Zovirax
    • 3) corticosteroids
  31. Fusarium Keratitis Treatment
    1) Antifungal: natamycin
  32. Toxoplasmosis Treatment
    1) pyramethamine + sulfonamides
  33. Toxoplasmosis
    Caused by protozoa from handling or eating undercooked meats and cat feces
  34. Helminth Infections Treatments
    • 1) Anti-helminthes
    • 2) Topical corticosteroids
    • 3) Surgical removal of worms
  35. Types of Helminth Infections
    • 1) Onchonoceriasis
    • 2) Cysticercosis
    • 3) Toxocariasis
    • 4) A. caninum
  36. Onchonoceriasis
    • Roundworm;
    • Treatment: yearly ivermectin
  37. Cysticercosis
    • Flatworm;
    • Poorly cooked pork
  38. Toxocariasis
    • Worm carried by cats, dogs, wolves and foxes
    • More common in children who eat dirt containing feces
  39. Drug Treatment for Parasitic Eye Infections
    1) praziquantel: Biltricide
  40. A. Carninum
    Carried by dogs and causes DUSN
  41. Causes of Otitis Externa
    • 1) excessive moisture exposure
    • 2) high temperatures
    • 3) irritation from wax removal
    • 4) objects in the ear
    • 5) chronic dermalogical disease
  42. Treatment of Otitis Externa
    • 1) Aminoglycosides
    • 2) Anti-infectives + corticosterioids
  43. Otitis Media Treatment
    • 1) Self-Limiting
    • 2) Penicillins
    • 3) Cephalosporins
    • 4) Sulfonamides
  44. Otitis Media & Children
    Children are most susceptible to ear infections due to shorter and straighter Eustachian tubes
  45. Otitis Media + Allergies
    Antihistamines and Decongestants will not help or prevent an ear infection

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