Unit 35.txt

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Cloe
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155586
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Unit 35.txt
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2012-05-24 01:55:23
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Pharmacology Infectious Diseases
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Chapter 35 of the Pharmacology for Pharmacy Technicians textbook by Moscou/Snipe
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  1. Antibiotic
    Natural substance produced by one organism that is capable of destroying or inhibiting the growth of bacteria
  2. Anti-infective
    Synthetic antibiotic.
  3. Bactericidal
    Able to destroy bacteria
  4. Bacteriostatic
    Able to stop bacterial replication; host immune system then destroys bacteria
  5. Beta-Lactamase
    Enyme secreted by some microbes that has the ability to destroy beta-lactam antibiotics
  6. Microbial Resistance
    • Ability of bacteria to resist anti-infectives.
    • Resistance traits are encoded on bacterial genes and transferred to other bacteria.
  7. Risk Factors for Infectious Disease
    • 1) Poverty
    • 2) Malnutrition
    • 3) Lack of Clean Water
    • 4) Poor Sanitation
    • 5) Inadequate Housing
  8. How Antimicrobials Work
    Bacteria cells have walls & human cells don't. Anti's work by targetting those walls inhibitting the bacterial cell reproduction
  9. Mechanisms of Antimicrobial Action
    • 1) Inhibiting bacterial wall production or function
    • 2) Inhibiting bacterial protein production
    • 3) Inhibiting bacterial DNA & RNA production
    • 4) Antifolates
  10. Antimicrobials which Inhibit bacterial wall production
    Beta-Lactam Antibiotics

    • 1) Penicillians,
    • 2) Cephalosporins
    • 3) Cabapenems
    • 4) Monobactams
  11. Antimicrobials which Inhibit bacterial wall function
    1) Polymyxin B

    Produces a detergent-like action which increases cell permability and causes leak
  12. Antimicrobials which Inhibit bacterial protein production
    • 1) Aminoglycosides
    • 2) Marcolides,
    • 3) Tetracyclines,
    • 4) Amphenicols,
    • 5) Oxazolidiones

    Work by interfering with rhe bacteria's ability to replicate
  13. Antimicrobials which Inhibit bacterial DNA & RNA production
    • 1) Fluoroquinolones DNA
    • 2) Nitroimidazoles DNA
    • 3) Rifampin RNA

    Work by blocking bacteria's ability to transfer its genetic code to replicate itself
  14. Antifolates
    • Sulfonamides
    • Bacteria needs folate to replicate and antifolates block folate production within the cells
  15. Causes of Microbial Resistance
    • 1) Inappropriate prescribing
    • 2) Failure to complete full therapy
    • 3) Giving antibacterials for viral infections
    • 4) Antibiotics in the foodchain
    • 5) Lack of guidelines for preventing spread of infections in care settings
  16. Classifications of Anti-infectives (10)
    • 1) Aminoglycosides
    • 2) Cephalosporines
    • 3) Fluoroquinolones
    • 4) Macrolides
    • 5) Oxazolidinones
    • 6) Penicillines
    • 7) Carbapenems
    • 8) Sulfonamides
    • 9) Tetracyclines
    • 10) Miscellaneous
  17. Aminoglycosides Common Ending
    "-mycin"
  18. Cephalosporin Common Beginning
    "Ceph-" or "Cef-"
  19. Fluoroquinolones Common Ending
    "-floxacin"
  20. Macrolides Common Ending
    "-thromycin"
  21. Penicillin Common Ending
    "-cillin"
  22. Carbapenems Common Ending
    "-penem"
  23. Sulfonamides Common Beginning
    "Sulfa-"
  24. Tetracyclines Common Ending
    "-cycline"
  25. Cephalosporin Generations
    • First - Fights gram(-) anaerobic bacterium
    • Treats - Staph/Strep infection

    • Second - Fights gram(+) & gram(-) bacterium
    • Treats: Upper Respiratory

    • Third - Fights gram(+) aerobic bacterium
    • Treats: Meningitis, Gonorrhea, intraabdominal infections and bone/joint infections

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