Unit 36.txt

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Unit 36.txt
2012-05-24 02:05:43
Pharmacology Viral Infections

Chapter 36 of the Pharmacology for Pharmacy Technicians textbook by Moscou/Snipe
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  1. Adherence
    Closely following or sticking with the treatment regiment
  2. AIDS
    • Acquired immune deficiency syndrome
    • Most severe form of HIV, diagnosis based on CD4 count in the blood
  3. Antiretroviral
    • Medication that interferes with the replication of retroviruses.
    • HIV is a retrovirus
  4. Antiviral
    Medication that is able to inhibit viral replication
  5. Antiviral Resistance
    Ability of a virus to overcome suppressive action of antiviral agents
  6. CD4 Count
    Number of CD4 immunity cells in the blood
  7. CD4 T Lymphocyte
    White blood cells that fight infection
  8. Cross-Resistance
    Development of resistance to one drug in a particular class that results in the resistance to the other drugs within that class
  9. Drug Resistance Testing
    Lab test to determine if an HIV strain in an individual is resistant to any anti HIV medications
  10. HAART
    • Highly Activated Antiretroviral Therapy
    • Combo of 3+ antiretrovitals taken in a regiment
  11. Viral Load
    Amount of materials from the virus that get released into the blood when the HIV reproduces
  12. Perinatal Transmission
    Transmission of HIV from mother to baby during pregnancy, delivery or breast milk
  13. Virion
    Infectious particle of a virus
  14. Virostatic
    Able to suppress viral proliferation
  15. Virus
    Intracellular parasite that consists of DNA and RNA core surrounded by a protein coat and sometimes an outer covering of lipoprotein
  16. Mechanisms of Antiviral Action
    • 1) Interfere w/ virus attachment to host
    • 2) Inhibit viral transcription
    • 3) Inhibit viral DNA & RNA
    • 4) Interfere w/ virus proteins
    • 5) Interfere w/ viral assembly
    • 6) Interfere w/ release of virus
    • 7) Interfere w/ virion enzymes
    • 8) Viral uncoating and cell penatration
  17. Inhibitors of Viral Coating
    amantadine - Symmetrel
  18. Inhibitors of Virus Proliferation
    • Neuraminidase Inhibitors;
    • oseltamivir - Tamiflu
    • zanamivir - Relenza

    Treatment of influemza A & B
  19. Neuraminidase Inhibitor Common Ending
  20. Inhibitors of Transcription
    • Interferons;
    • interferon alfa 2b - Intron-A
    • interferon alfacon-1 - Infergen
    • peginterferon alfa-2a - Pegasys
  21. Interferons
    Protect uninfected cell by promoting a resistance to virus infection

    Treats Hep B & C
  22. Common Ending for Herpes Treatments
    "-cyclovir" or "ciclovir"
  23. Cidofovir
    Treatment of cytomeglovirus (CMV) retinitis
  24. Foscarnet
    Treatment of cytomeglovirus (CMV) retinitis in AIDs patients
  25. Ganciclovir
    Treatment of cytomeglovirus (CMV)
  26. Penciclovir
    Metabolite which Treats Cold Sores
  27. Trifluridine
    Treatment of Keraconjunctivitis (herpes of the eye)
  28. Ribavirin
    • Treatment of Respiratory Syncytial Virus
    • Also Hep C when combined with Interferons
  29. HIV
    • Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • Attacks CD4 T-Lymphocytes and weakens immune system
  30. Opportunistic Infections
    Tuberculosis, Candidiasis and Cytomeglovirus (CMV)
  31. HIV Life Cycle
    • 1) Binding
    • 2) Fusion
    • 3) Uncoating
    • 4) Reverse Transcription
    • 5) Intergration
    • 6) Genome Replication
    • 7) Protein Synthesis
    • 8) Protein Cleavage & Viral Assembly
    • 9) Virus Release
  32. HIV Binding
    The HIV virus binds to CD4 surface receptors
  33. HIV Fusion
    Virus fuses to the outside of the host cell
  34. HIV Uncoating
    Virus is uncoated and contents are releases into the host cell
  35. HIV Reverse Transcription
    A DNA copy of the viral RNA is made
  36. HIV Integration
    Viral DNA in incorporated into the host celluar DNA
  37. HIV Genome Replication
    mRNA gives instructions for making new virus
  38. HIV Protein Synthesis
    HIV mRNA genome is then the template for making viral proteins needed to produce a new virus
  39. Mantoux Test
    Subcutaneous injection TB test
  40. How do Antiretrovirals help HIV?
    • 1) Reduce Viral Load
    • 2) Incease CD4 counts
    • 3) Delay development of AIDs related conditions
    • 4) Improve Survival
  41. Protease Inhibitors Common Ending
  42. Protease Inhibitors (PIs)
    • Most potent antiretroviral
    • Most only effective against HIV-1
  43. NNRTIs
    • Antiretroviral for HIV-1
    • Nevirapine prevents mommy transmission
  44. NRTIs
    • Antiretroviral for HIV-1 & 2
    • Zidovudine - 1st ARV, can prevent mommy transmission
    • Didanosine - Pediatric Use
  45. Ritonavir (PIs)
    Effective against HIV-1 & 2