P1 Flashcard Questions.csv

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P1 Flashcard Questions.csv
2012-05-24 05:23:09
p1 mcauley questions

p1 mcauley questions
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  1. 1. What are the three ways heat energy can be transferred?
    Radiation conduction and convection
  2. 2. Which one of these is responsible for heat transfer in a solid?
  3. 3. Which one of these can only occur in liquids and gases?
  4. 4.Which one of these is often called infrared?
  5. 5.Do all objects emit heat radiation?
  6. 6. Do all objects absorb heat radiation?
  7. 7. What colour surface is the best emitter of heat radiation?
  8. 8. What colour is the best absorber of heat radiation?
  9. 9. What surface is the best reflector of heat radiation?
  10. 10. In which state of matter are there virtually no forces of attraction between particles?
  11. 11. In which state of matter are there strong forces of attraction between the particles?
  12. 12. What happens to the particles in a solid when they are heated?
    They gain kinetic energy and move further apart
  13. 13. What is the relationship between density and conduction?
    The denser a material the faster the conduction of heat
  14. 14. Why are metals such good conductors of heat?
    They have free moving electrons (much faster method of heat transfer than vibrating neighbouring particles)
  15. 15. Which conducts more efficiently � short thick rods or long thin rods?
    Short thick rods
  16. 16. What happens to the density of water when it is heated and why?
    It decreases because the distance between the particles increases as they have more kinetic energy
  17. 17. What happens to the water temperature below the heater element in an immersion heater?
    The water stays basically the same temperature
  18. 18. How can liquids evaporate below the boiling point of the liquid?
    The particles have enough kinetic energy to break free and they are travelling in the right direction
  19. 19. Why are car engines black and why do they have �fins�?
    Black is the best emitter of heat radiation and the fins increase the surface area for heat loss. (REMEMBER cars break down if the engine overheats!!)
  20. 20. Why is there no heat loss by conduction or convection in a vacuum?
    A vacuum has no particles both conduction and convection need particles in order to transfer heat.
  21. 21. Why do vacuum flasks have plastic stoppers and are usually made of plastic?
    Because plastic is an insulator and does not conduct heat very well.
  22. 22. What does ear size have to do with heat loss?
    The bigger the ear the more heat can be lost by radiation
  23. 23. Which would be more cost effective double glazing or loft insulation?
    Loft insulation as the pay back period is much shorter (REMEMBER cost effective and most effective are completely different)
  24. 24. What is the relationship between insulation properties and u values?
    The better the insulator the lower the u value
  25. 25. What is the term used that measures how much energy a substance can store?
    The specific heat capacity
  26. 26. How is specific heat capacity worked out?
    It is the amount of energy needed to raise 1kg of a substance by 1�C
  27. 27. Water has a specific heat capacity of 4200J/kg�C and oil has a specific heat capacity of 2000J/kg�C � which would be the best to use in a heating system?
  28. 28. What are the nine types of energy?
    Electrical Light sound kinetic nuclear thermal gravitational potential elastic and chemical
  29. 29. Which of these are forms of stored energy?
    Gravitational potential elastic and chemical
  30. 30. Can energy be created or destroyed?
    No it can only be transferred from one form to another
  31. 31. How is the efficiency of a machine/device measured?
    The useful energy transferred divided by the total energy supplied
  32. 32. What unit is energy measured in?
    Joules (J)
  33. 33. What unit of energy is power measured in?
    Watts (W) or kilowatts (kW)
  34. 34. There is only one device that is 100% efficient � what is it?
    An electric heater
  35. 35. Wasted energy is usually in what form?
  36. 36. Apart from efficiency what other factors should be considered before buying an appliance?
  37. 37. What is a kilowatt-hour (kWh)?
    The amount of electrical energy a 1kW appliance uses in a hour.
  38. 38. What two formulae are required to work out the cost of electricity?
    Units (kWh) = Power (kW) x Time (hrs) Cost = No of Units x Price per unit
  39. 39. Name four non renewable energy resources.
    Coal oil natural gas and nuclear
  40. 40. Name eight renewable energy resources.
    Wind waves tides hydroelectric solar geothermal food and biofuels
  41. 41. Name two advantages of wind power.
    No fuel costs No pollution
  42. 42. Name two disadvantages of wind power.
    Initial costs high/only work in windy conditions Noisy/ugly
  43. 43. Name two advantages of solar cells.
    Suitable for use in remote areas/no pollution/free running costs
  44. 44. Name two disadvantages of solar cells.
    Work better in sunny climates/ high initial costs
  45. 45. Name two advantages of hydroelectric power.
    Minimal running costs/no pollution
  46. 46. Name two disadvantages of hydroelectric power.
    Need to flood large areas/ damage habitats/initial costs high
  47. 47. Name two advantages of wave power.
    No fuel costs/useful for small islands
  48. 48. Name two disadvantages of wave power.
    Spoil the view/danger to boats/not very reliable/initial costs high
  49. 49. Name two advantages of tidal power.
    No pollution/no fuel costs
  50. 50. Name two disadvantages of tidal power
    Spoil the view/problem for boat access/high initial costs
  51. 51. Name two advantages of geothermal energy.
    No fuel costs/no pollution
  52. 52. Name two disadvantages of geothermal energy
    Only available near volcanic areas/high initial costs
  53. 53. What is a biofuel?
    A fuel made from a plant or plant waste
  54. 54. What environmental problem is associated with carbon dioxide emissions?
    Global warming
  55. 55. What environmental problem is associated with sulphur dioxide emissions?
    Acid rain
  56. 56. What environmental problem is associated with soot and particulates?
    Global dimming
  57. 57. Why are biofuels often referred to as carbon neutral?
    The carbon dioxide they emit when burned equals the carbon dioxide they take in when they are growing
  58. 58. Why does the UK not depend too heavily on biofuels?
    Because there is insufficient free land available to grow the �fuel crop�.
  59. 59. What is CCS?
    Carbon capture and storage
  60. 60. What could be done with the carbon dioxide produced in power stations?
    It could be captured and pumped into empty gas and oil fields.
  61. 61. Algae could be used to capture carbon dioxide � what could the algae then be used for?
    To produce biofuel
  62. 62. How is electricity distributed in the UK?
    The National Grid
  63. 63. Why is it necessary to increase the voltage and reduce the current when transferring electrical energy?
    A high current would mean too much heat would be lost from the electricity cables
  64. 64. What is used to increase the voltage?
    A step up transformer
  65. 65. What is used to decrease the voltage?
    A step down transformer
  66. 66. How is energy transferred?
    By means of waves
  67. 67. What is the amplitude of a wave?
    The distance between the rest position and the crest.
  68. 68. What is the wavelength of a wave?
    The distance between two crests
  69. 69. What is the frequency of a wave?
    The number of waves in a second
  70. 70. What is frequency measured in?
    Hertz (Hz)
  71. 71. Describe a transverse wave?
    A wave with sideways vibrations
  72. 72. Name two examples of transverse waves.
    Light microwaves infrared ultraviolet x ray gamma waves
  73. 73. Describe a longitudinal wave.
    A wave with vibrations along the same line.
  74. 74. Name two examples of longitudinal waves.
    Sound waves ultrasound waves seismic waves
  75. 75. What is the equation to work out the speed of a wave?
    Speed (m/s) = frequency (hz) x wavelength (m)
  76. 76. Name all the electromagnetic waves in the EM spectrum starting with the one with the longest wavelength.
    Radiowaves microwaves infrared visible light ultra violet x rays and gamma rays
  77. 77. Which EM travels the fastest?
    TRICK QUESTION � they all travel at the same speed
  78. 78. What is the main use of radio waves?
  79. 79. What waves are used in satellite communication?
  80. 80. What are the main used of infrared waves?
    Optical fibres and wireless remote controllers
  81. 81. Optical fibres also use what other type of wave?
    Visible light waves
  82. 82. What is the relationship between frequency and pitch?
    The higher the frequency the higher the pitch
  83. 83. What is the relationship between amplitude and loudness?
    The bigger the amplitude the louder the noise
  84. 84. What does red shift tell us about our Galaxy?
    It is expanding