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2012-06-06 15:01:07

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  1. A survey conducted in 2004, by the American Heartworm Society, revealed ___ dogs were diagnosed with heartworm disease across the United States.
  2. The first case of heartworm diesase was identified in the canine population more than __ years ago, with the first case of feline heartworm disease found in 1920's.
  3. HW diseases means what 2 things?
    1. has heartworms 2. the animal suffers from the debilitating symptoms
  4. What is the family for heartworm diease?
  5. Dirofilaria immitis with its definitive host the __
  6. What are the stages of heartworm?
    • Stage 1- Microfilaria- 1st adult and mosquito
    • Stage 2- No Name Stage-Mosquito only
    • Stage 3- Infective Stage-mosquito and 2nd adult
    • Stage 4- Pre-adult Stage 2nd adult only
    • Stage 5a- Immature Adult Stage- 2nd adult only
    • Stage 5- Mature Adult Stage- 2nd adult only
  7. Of all known species of mosquito some __# are known to transmit D.immitis; however recent studies indicate that some species are more prone to take blood meals from dogs and some from cats.
  8. The __ mosquito is common in the homes of people in the US and effects both dogs and cats.
  9. __ % of dogs positive on occult test for dirofilaria immits, are known to be negative for microfilaria.
  10. What are some reasons why we dont see microfilaria?
    • 1. same sex
    • 2. WBC attacks
  11. What transmit heartworms?
  12. What transmit Acanthochelonema reconditum?
    the flea! (Ctenocephalis felis)
  13. What are 5 ways to diagnosis heartworm diseas using blood samples?
    • Direct smear 64%
    • modified knot's test 84%
    • Difil test- best microfilaria test
    • Hemaatocrit Tube
    • Occult test
  14. What are 3 other ways to diagnosis heartworms besides blood samples?
    History, Radiology, Echocardiography
  15. What does ELISA stand for?
    Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
  16. Any test that detects antigens or antibodies is considered an __
    Occult test
  17. It was once written that all antigen test required at least __ mature females
  18. What are the top 4 heartworm symptoms noted by the owner are:
    • 1. coughing
    • 2. loss of stamina
    • 3. ascites
    • 4. front legs bowed outward
  19. What are 4 causes of false negatives on a blood sample antigen test?
    • 1. blood sample is not warmed up to room temperature
    • 2. infection is light
    • 3. female worms have yet to mature
    • 4. they are only males in this infection
  20. Why are ELISA test not as senstive to heartworms in cats?
    1. Due to low heartworm burden 2. immature female heartworms in the early stages of the life cycle 3. a male heartworm infection
  21. Overall, the msot useful tests to confirm heartworm infection in cats are:
    1. serology (Antibody levels or antibody test), thoracic radiographs or an echocardiography
  22. The changes typically seen in canine radiographs with heartworms include:
    • 1. enlargement of the pulmonary artery at 1 o'clock
    • 2. enlargement of the right side of the heart commonly called the "inverted D"
  23. What are some changes in the radiograph of a cat with heartworms?
    • 1. enlargement of the main lobar and peripheral pulmonary arteries
    • 2. the pulmonary artery is gretater that 1/6 times the width of the ninth rib
  24. There are two views that are a must for determining the SEVERITY of heartworm infection:
    • 1. Lateral view- heart more than 5 ribs in length and sits on the sternum
    • 2. Ventral Dorsal View
    • a. enlarged pulmonary artery-1 o clock
    • b. enlarged right side of heart- inverted D
  25. Macrocyclic lactones includes the following preventive mdications:
    • 1. ivermectin
    • 2. milbemycin oxime
    • 3. selamectin
    • 4. moxidectin
  26. The macrocyclic lactones are highly therapeutic possessing, anthelminthic activity against what 4 things?
    • 1. microfilaria
    • 2. 3rd and 4th stage larvae
    • 3. and some instances young adult heartworm S5a
  27. Nemcide, Dirocide, Filaribits
    Diethylcarbamazine citrate- Pfizer
  28. Heartgard
    ivermectin- Merial (Merick)
  29. Interceptor
    Milbemycin oxime-novartis
  30. Proheart6
    Moxidecting- Ft. Dodge
  31. Advantage Multi
    Moxidectin+ Imidacloprid - Bayer
  32. What are the 3 products that produce a reaction when animal has microfilira?
    • Diethylcarbamzine citrate
    • Milbemycin oxime
    • Dicolorvus- TASK
  33. Is Diethylcarbamazine citrate a macrocyclic lactone?
  34. What is the liquid diethylcarbamazine phosphate?
    Styride Caricide
  35. When is it okay to give DEC to a dog with heartworm?
    occult infections (adult only) usually prior to microfiliaria infection and under 5 months
  36. Ivermectin (Heartgard) kills what stage of heartworm?
  37. It is well knonw that some __ dogs (autosomal recessive inheritance) and other glycoprotein deficient dogs are unusally sensitive to high does of ivermectin. In excessive of 16 times the minimum effective prophylaxis does.
    Collie dogs
  38. What stage of heartworm does intercepter kill?
    L3 and L4
  39. What are two topical preventatives for heartworms?
    • 1. Selamectin- Revolution
    • 2. Moxidectin with imidacloprid - Advantage multi
  40. Whats the injectable product for heartworms?
    Proheart 6
  41. What is the heartworm found in large cats primary in Africa?
    Dirofilaria ripens
  42. What does the head of dirofiliaria immitis look like?
    tapered head
  43. What does the head of Ancathochelonema recondium?
    Button hooked tail/blunt head
  44. What are some symptoms/signs of a dog with heartworms?
    • 1. weight loss
    • 2.loss endurance
    • 3. coughing
    • 4. accumulation of abdominal fluid
    • 5. labored breathing
    • 6. increased temperature
    • 7. cyanotic membranes
  45. What aren't more animals protected from heartworms?
    • 1. 24% of all pet owners, spend nothing at vet
    • 2. clients do not understand the disease
    • 3. pricing of treatment and prevention deter many clients from starting on a prophylaxis
  46. Why do clients go to vet hosipitals?
    • 1. 1/3 go for vaccinations
    • 2. 1/3 of all go only when ill
    • NOTE: presuading clients to further health care for there pets is communication and consistency
  47. What product can be used for demodectic mange?
    Advantage multi- moxidectin with imidacloprid
  48. What is an injectable product for heartworms?
    Proheart 6 (Moxidectin)
  49. Macrocyclic lactones chemoprophylaxis will do what 3 things?
    • 1. clear microfilariae from the blood of dogs
    • 2. retard repopulation by gradually suppressing embryogenesis
    • 3. shorten the life of the adult
  50. What are treatments for adult heartworms?
    • 1. Melarsomine dihydrochloride (Immiticide)
    • 2. Thiacetarsamide sodium (Caparsolate)
  51. Immiticide is administered in deep __ muscles
    epaxial lumbar
  52. All macrocyclic lactones have a "__" of two months
    reach back
  53. This drug has been used as an adulticide for heartworms since the mid 60's and is still available in Asia and parts of Europe
    Thiacetarsamide sodium
  54. What are some other heartworm adulticide not in use today?
    • Levamisole HCl
    • Fenthon (Talodex)
  55. Why was levamisole taken off the market?
    unsafe (organophosphate like symptoms)
  56. What is the drug of choice for microfilaricide treatment?
  57. What are the 6 microfilaria treatments today and yesterday?
    • 1. Ivermectin
    • 2. Selamectin (Revolution)
    • 3. Milbemycin oxime (Interceptor)
    • 4. Dithiazine Iodine (Dizan)
    • 5. Levamisole HCl
    • 6. Fenthion
  58. Adult worms when treated with the adulticide will die in ___
    9 months to 1 year
  59. What is class 1 of heartworms?
    • asymptomatic to mild heartworm disease
    • no radiographic signs
    • no signs of anemia
  60. What is class 2 of heartworms?
    • moderate heartworm disease
    • radiographic signs are present
    • anemia is present PCV less than 30%
    • mild proteninuria
  61. What is class 3 heartworms
    • severe heartworm disease
    • radiographic signs
    • significant anemia
    • stabilized and alternate dosage
  62. What is caval syndrome also known as?
    dirofilarial hemoglobinuria
  63. Most filarial nematodes, including D. immitis, harbor obligate, intracellualar, gram negative bacterica called?
  64. It is hypothesized that Wolbachia contributes to _ and _ inflammation
    pulmonary and renal producing endotoxins
  65. What is the lifecycle of Dirofilaria immitis?
    • Dog #1 has adults (S5) and microfilaria (S1)
    • Mosquito takes blood and picks up S1
    • S1 molts to S3 in mosquito, time temp depend
    • Mosquito inserts S3 & saliva in dog #2
    • s3 molts to s4 in SQ tissue
    • S4 stays in SQ for 100 days
    • S4 molts to S5 (preadult) and it moves to pa
    • S5 preadult stays in PA for 80days and then molts to adult S5
  66. What is the formala to convert celcius to F*
    9/5 x C + 32 = F
  67. why treat for microfilaria
    • a dog positive for microfilaria is potential threat to other dogs
    • pathological changes associated with high #s of microfilaria make the treatment of the dog for adults more complex
    • If the dog is positive, and an owner where to buy DEC resulting in shock or death
  68. What is type 1 hypersensitivity (anaphylactic)
    • mast cells (basophils) release histamines that:
    • dilate blood vessels
    • hypotension insues resulting in a decreased in cardiac output
    • loss of tone in the capillary walls and sphincters
    • blood pools in all peripheral vessels
    • blood cannot get back to heart and lungs to receive O2
    • animal goes into coma and dies of hypoxia
  69. symptoms of anaphylactic shock
    • reaction occurs within 20 mins time frame
    • dilated pupils
    • diarrhea
    • vomiting
    • WBC goes down in 1 hour
  70. What are some options in treatment for dogs with heartworms
    • adulticide
    • adulticide and microfilaricide
    • or just microfilaricide
  71. Signs of heartworms disease in cats usually develop during on of what two stages:
    • arrival of the immature S5 in the pulmonary artery
    • death of adult heartworms
  72. The ititial phase of feline heartworm disease is often diagnosed as asthma or allergic bronchitis but is actually part of a syndrome now known as :
    Heartworm- associated respiratory disease (HARD)
  73. what is AHA?
    american heartworm association
  74. what is the gold standard for dog occult test?
  75. What is the earliest detection for antibody, radiographs, echocardiograph, antigen
    • antibody 2 mo
    • radiography 4-6 mo
    • echocardiograph 6 mo
    • antigen 6 mo
  76. What are the heartworm preventives in cats?
    • Selamectin Revolution topical
    • Ivermectin Heartgard oral
    • Milbemycin oxime Interceptor oral
    • Imidacloprid + moxidectin Advantage multi topical