Vital Signs

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Author:
amycykho
ID:
155781
Filename:
Vital Signs
Updated:
2012-05-25 04:36:39
Tags:
MICN201 Medicine
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Description:
Clinical Skills Tutorial 1: Vital Signs Quiz
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  1. core body temperature reference range?
    36.8-37.2
  2. methods of taking core body temperature in order of accuracy?
    rectal, tympanic membrane (eardrum), sublingual, axillary
  3. hyperthermia threshold and causes
    >37.3; drugs, fever, exercise, heat stroke, hyperthyroidism
  4. what is a common type of medication that can cause hyperthermia?
    anaesthesia
  5. hypothermia threshold and causes
    <35; dehydration, burns, coldness, severe loss of blood (shock), hypothyroidism
  6. explain the mechanism of action of how burns can cause deviation from normal core body temperature
    burns which result in the loss of skin, which acts as a heat conservation mechanism, causes undue dissipation of heat and therefore can lead to hypothermia
  7. pulse/heart rate reference range and character
    60-100bpm; rate, strength, rhythm
  8. bradycardia threshold and causes
    <60bpm; sleep, athletic build, infection, hypothyroidism, heart block, drugs
  9. infections causing bradycardia
    only two: typhoid (bacterial) and leptospirosis (muscle weakness spreading via rat urine especially in flooded regions)
  10. drugs causing bradycardia
    diazepam (causing heart block), alcohol, morphine
  11. tachycardia threshold and causes
    >100bpm; exercise, obesity leading to heart problems, stress/anxiety, shock, infection, drugs
  12. basic mechanism of arrhythmia
    SA node fires too fast while AV node continues to regulate the contractions without ventricular filling leading to bursts of activity followed by relaxation
  13. respiratory rate reference
    12-16bpm
  14. what must you be careful of when measuring respiratory rate
    patient's conscious control of breathing must be eliminated by measuring both pulse and respiration simultaneously
  15. bradyopnoea threshold and causes
    <8bpm; sleep, drgus, poisoning
  16. name some substances that cause bradyopnea
    marjuauna, morphine, diazepam, CO
  17. tachapnea threshold and causes
    >18bpm; asthma, exercise, stress/anxiety, hypoxic environment
  18. components of observation
    demeanour and complexion
  19. components of demeanour
    gait, mood, posture, level of distress, alertness/energy levels/consciousness, facial expression, level of grooming, age
  20. what can level of grooming of a patient indicate
    care for self, hygiene and congruence with the environment
  21. types of complexion
    palour, flushed, jaundice, cyanosis
  22. how do you examine for palour and what can it indicate
    regardless of skin colour, lower eye sheath or conjunctiva gives good indication of potential anemia, anxiety, cold or shock
  23. what may flushed complexion indicate in a patient
    recent exercise, overheating, anxiety
  24. what is the other name for jaundice and how do you examine for it
    icterus can be confirmed in the white of the eye or sclera regardless of skin colour
  25. what may jaundice indicate in a patient
    liver problems, gall bladder stones, RBC destruction producing excess bilirubin from sickle-cell anemia or thalassemia
  26. where are the best places to examine for cyanosis
    tongue and lips centrally and peripheral limbs and digits
  27. what may cyanosis indicate in a patient
    reduced oxygen due to respiratory or CVS conditions such as arterial blockages or reduced blood supply or simply coldness

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