ONCOLOGY

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Author:
cherubicsiren
ID:
155868
Filename:
ONCOLOGY
Updated:
2012-05-25 17:30:41
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ONC
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ONC
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  1. what are the four main targets of genetic damage?
    • proto-oncogenes
    • tumor suppressor genes
    • genes that regulate apoptosis
    • DNA repair genes
  2. 3/4 of cases are unilateral and due to sporadic mutations. 1/4 of cases are bilateral and 1 "hit" comes from parents, 1 "hit" comes from sporadic genetic change.
    Retinoblastoma
  3. what is the most common oncogene abnormality in humans? what disease is most associated with it?
    RAS

    Follicular Thyroid Carcinoma
  4. what type of cancer is associated?

    Rb
    • Retinoblastoma
    • Osteosarcoma
  5. what type of cancer is associated?

    DPC
    pancreatic
  6. what type of cancer is associated?

    APC
    • FAP
    • colorectal
  7. what type of cancer is associated?
    WTI
    wilms tumor
  8. what type of cancer is associated?

    BRCA1 and 2
    breast and ovarian cancer
  9. what cancers are associated with K-RAS mutation?
    Colon, Lung and Pancrease
  10. name the most common cancers in men. name the most common cancers in women.
    men: prostate, lung, colon, pancreas

    women: breast, lung, colon, uterus
  11. what are the most common cancers causing mortality?
    • Lung
    • Prostate/Breast
    • Colon
    • Pancreas
  12. what cancers are associated with UV radiation?
    SCC, BCC and melanomas
  13. Which type of UV radiation is most problematic?
    UVB - b for bad
  14. what type of cancer is associated?

    RET
    MEN IIa and IIb

    Papillary Thyroid Cancer
  15. what diseases are associated with DNA-repair defects?
    • HNPCC
    • Xeroderma Pigmentosum - pyrimidine dimer repair
    • Ataxia-Telangiectasia
  16. What organism is associated with SCC of the bladder? "An Egyptian with Hematuria"
    Schistosoma Haematobium
  17. Associated neoplasms:

    Hashimoto Thyroiditis
    Lymphoma
  18. Associated neoplasms:

    Down Syndrome
    ALL, AML
  19. Associated neoplasms:

    Plummer Vinson
    SCC of the esophagus
  20. Associated neoplasms:

    Tuberous Sclerosis
    Cardiac Rhabdomyoma, astrocytoma, angiomyolipoma
  21. Associated neoplasms:

    Ataxia-telangiectasia
    Leukemias and Lymphomas
  22. Associated neoplasms:
    Paget Disease of the bone
    Osteosarcoma, Fibrosarcoma
  23. Associated neoplasms:

    Nitrosamines
    Gastric adenoma, esophageal and colon cancer
  24. Associated neoplasms:

    Asbestos
    Mesothelioma, Bronchogenic cancer
  25. Associated neoplasms:

    Naphthalene
    Transitional Cell Carcinoma of the bladder
  26. Associated neoplasms:

    Arsenic
    SCC skin, liver angio sarcoma
  27. Associated neoplasms:

    EBV
    Burkitt Lymphoma, Nasopharyngeal, Hodgkin Lymphoma
  28. Associated neoplasms:

    HPV
    Cervical cancer
  29. Associated neoplasms:

    Schistosoma haematobium
    SCC of the bladder
  30. What type of tumor matches following description:

    benign tumor of epithelium
    adenoma, papilloma
  31. What type of tumor matches following description:

    malignant tumor of the blood vessels
    angiosarcoma
  32. What type of tumor matches following description:

    benign tumor of bone
    osteoma
  33. What type of tumor matches following description:

    malignant tumor of smooth muscle
    leiomyosarcoma
  34. Nomenclature:

    "Hemangi" or "angi"
    blood vessels
  35. Nomenclature:

    "leiomyo"
    smooth muscle
  36. Nomenclature:

    "rhabdomyo"
    skeletal muscle
  37. Nomenclature:

    Fibro
    Connective tissue
  38. what enzyme is normally absent in somatic cells but is active in stem cells and cancer cells?
    Telomerase
  39. what are the proangiogenic cytokines?
    bFGF, VEGF

    (basic fibroblast growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor)
  40. Name the tumor marker:

    HCC
    alpha fetoprotein
  41. Name the tumor marker:

    Ovarian Cancer
    CA 125
  42. Name the tumor marker:

    Pancreatic cancer
    CA 19-9, CEA
  43. Name the tumor marker:

    Melanoma
    S100
  44. Name the tumor marker:

    Colon Cancer
    CEA
  45. Name the tumor marker:

    Astrocytoma
    S100
  46. what is the most common cause of hypercalcemia? what cancers can cause hypercalcemia?
    Primary Hyperparathyroidism - MOST COMMON

    Cancers: SCC, RCC, multiple myeloma, breast, bone mets
  47. what neoplasm is most commonly responsible for:

    ACTH -> Cushings
    small cell carcinoma of the lung
  48. what neoplasm is most commonly responsible for:

    Erythropoetin -> polycythemia
    RCC

    • Hemangioma
    • HCC
    • Pheochromocytoma
  49. what neoplasm is most commonly responsible for:

    ADH -> SIADH
    • intracranial lesion
    • small cell lung carcinoma
  50. which cancers mets to bone?
    PT Barnum Loves Kids

    • Prostate
    • Thyroid/Testes
    • Breast
    • Lungs
    • Kidneys
  51. which cancers mets to brain?
    Stuff Kills Glia

    Lung and Breast (always)

    • Skin
    • Kidney
    • GI
  52. which cancers mets to liver?
    Cancer Sometimes Penetrates Benign Liver

    • Colon
    • Stomach
    • Pancreas
    • Breast
    • Lung
  53. What is the primary immune cell involved in host tumor immune surveillance?
    CD8 cells
  54. what enzyme present in melanoma generates peptides that are targets for host t cells?
    Tyrosinase
  55. How can tumor cells evade attack from cytotoxic T cells?
    decrease MHC class I expression - but this makes you an NK target
  56. how might tumor cells induce apoptosis of T cells that would antagonize them?
    FAS L - kills CD8 cells
  57. Methotrexate: MOA, Notes, Tx:
    Methotrexate - inhibits dihydrofolate reductase - leuvocorin rescue

    Tx: Leukemias and Lymphomas
  58. 5-Fluorouracil: MOA, Tx, Notes
    MOA: inhibits thymidylate synthase

    Tx: BCC, actinic keratosis -> SCC

    Notes: Thymidine rescue
  59. 6-mercaptopurine: MOA, Tx, Notes
    MOA: purine analog - PRPP synthetase

    Tx: leukemias and lymphomas

    Notes: metabolized by xanthine oxidase
  60. Which anticancer drug is also used for rheumatoid disease and ectopic pregnancies?
    Methotrexate
  61. For which cancers is dactinomycin particularly useful?
    • Ewings Sarcoma
    • Wilms Tumor
    • Rhabdomyosarcoma

    Kids ACT out (DACTinomycin)
  62. Anticancer drug:

    forms complex between topoisomerase II and DNA
    Etoposide
  63. Anticancer drug:

    Alkylates DNA, toxicity-> pulmonary fibrosis
    Busulfan
  64. Anticancer drug:

    Fragments DNA, toxicity -> pulmonary fibrosis
    Bleomycin
  65. Anticancer drug:

    Blocks purine synthesis, metabolized by xanthine oxidase
    6-MP
  66. Anticancer drug:

    Crosslinks DNA, nephrotoxic, ototoxic
    Cisplatin, Carboplatin
  67. Anticancer drug:

    Nitrogen mustard, alkylates DNA
    Cyclophosphamide
  68. Anticancer drug:

    Folic acid analog inhibits dihydrofolate reductase
    Methotrexate
  69. Anticancer drug:

    prevents tubulin disassembly
    Paclitaxel
  70. Anticancer drug:

    Intercalates DNA, produces oxygen free radicals, cardiotoxic
    Doxorubicin, Daunorubicin
  71. Anticancer drug:

    DNA alkylating agents used in brain cancer
    nitrosureas
  72. Anticancer drug:

    prevents tubulin assembly
    Vincristine/blastine
  73. Anticancer drug:

    inhibits thymidylate synthase -> decreased nucleotide synthesis
    5FU
  74. Anticancer drug:

    SERM - blocks estrogen binding to the ER+ cells
    Tamoxifen, Raloxifene
  75. Anticancer drug:

    Mechanism similar to antivirals acyclovir and foscarnet
    Cytarabine
  76. Anticancer drug:

    Mechanism similar to fluoroquinolones
    Etoposide
  77. Anticancer drug:

    Mechanism similar to trimethoprim
    methotrexate
  78. Anticancer drug:

    monoclonal antibody against HER2
    Traztusumab
  79. Anticancer drug:

    Free radical-induced DNA breakage
    Bleo, Doxo and Daunarubicin
  80. Anticancer drug:

    Inhibitor of PRPP synthetase
    6MP
  81. Anticancer drug:

    Reversible with leucovorin
    methotrexate
  82. Anticancer drug:

    treatment for choriocarcinoma
    Methotrexate, Vincristine/blastine
  83. Anticancer drug:

    Treatment for AML
    Cytarabine
  84. Anticancer drug:

    Treatment for CML
    Imatinib
  85. Anticancer drug:

    Prevents breast cancer
    Tamoxifen
  86. Anticancer drug:

    Treatment for testicular cancer
    "Eradicate Ball Cancer"

    • etoposide
    • bleomycin
    • cisplatin
  87. Anticancer drug:

    applied topically for actinic keratosis and BCC's
    5FU
  88. Anticancer drug:

    Treatment for childhood tumors
    Dactinomycin
  89. Anticancer drug:

    Inhibits ribonucleotide reductase
    Hydroxyurea
  90. Anticancer drug:

    side effect of hemorrhagic cystitis
    Cyclophosphamide
  91. Anticancer drug:

    Antibodies against mutated tyrosine kinase from philadelphia chromosome
    Imatinib
  92. What are the potenital side effects of prednisone use?
    • cushings
    • cataracts
    • acne
    • osteoporosis
    • HTN
    • peptic ulcers
    • hyperglycemia
    • insomnia
    • psychosis

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