bio final part 2
Card Set Information
bio final part 2
What nucleotide distinguished RNA from DNA
Uracil present; Thymine absent
Which is the correct sequence of the transfer of information in most organisms?
RNA to DNA to protein
How is the genetic code read?
3 bases at a time in one direction
From which molecule is mRNA transcribed?
What is the product of transcription?
Which type of RNA brings the information in the genetic code from the nucleus to other parts of the cell?
What happens during translation?
The cell uses the mRNA code to build a protein.
What determines the type of amino acid that is added to the growing polypeptide chain during translation?
The codon on the mRNA and the anticodon on the tRNA
There are 64 codons but only 20 amino acids. What is the consequence of this?
SEVERAL DIFFERENT CODONS CAN SPECIFY THE SAME AMINO ACID (called redundancy)
What are some characteristics of polyploidy plants?
THEY ARE LARGER & STRONGER.
What is the advantage of sexual reproduction over asexual reproduction/cloning?
PRODUCES GENETIC DIVERSITY
Given a graphic of an animal cell in prophase be able to identify the centrioles (p. 282) What is the function of centrioles?
TO ATTACH TO SPINDLES
If a parent cell has 18 chromosomes, after mitosis, how many chromosomes will each daughter cell have?
Given a graphic of a chromosome be able to identify the centromere and the 2 sister chromatids.5-During the cell cycle when are chromosomes visible?
PROPHASE & METAPHASE
What is the major difference between plant and animal cell division?
PLANTS FORM A CELL PLATE
Describe the development of an embryo:
Chromosomes are duplicated before cell division so that each daughter cell has a complete set.
How do embryonic cells become specialized?
A process called DIFFERENTIATION
Why are stem cells so important?
They have the potential to develop into other cell types.
What is a prime example of a future benefit of stem cells in the future?
REVERSING DAMAGE FROM A HEART ATTACK
What is a genotype with two identical alleles called?
If a pea plant‟s alleles for height are tt and it is a dwarf, then what is true of its parents?
BOTH PARENTS CONTRIBUTED A RECESSIVE ALLELE.
What are the results of a TT (male) x (Tt) female cross?
ALL OFFSPRING WILL BE DOMINANT/TALL PEAS
In a one factor cross, which of Mendel‟s Laws applies?
DOMINANCE & SEGREGATION
Given a pea plant with genotype RrYY, how many different gametes can be formed (Make sure to foil)
Which of Mendel‟s Laws is applied in a two factor or two trait cross?
Human skin color does NOT follow Mendel‟s Laws. What do we call this trait?
What is the name for the process of making gametes?
What is the product of meiosis?
FOUR GENETICALLY DIFFERENT CELLS
Be able to identify a graphic of crossing over (p. 324)
What percentage of human sperm carry an X chromosome?
What is the female genotype?
How many chromosomes are shown in a normal human karyotype?
Why is colorblindness more common in males?
The allele for colorblindness is recessive and located on the X chromosome.
In the ABO blood group who has the same phenotype?
Type A = IAIAor IAi Type B = IBIBor IBiType AB = IAIBType O = ii
How does the hemoglobin of a person with sickle cell disease compare to normal hemaglobin?
It is less soluble and tends to clump or clot. Blood flow decreases.
What is the result of nondisjunction during meiosis?
Some gametes may have an extra third copy of some genes.
Be able to read a pedigree. Each horizontal /row of symbols represents a new generation.9-What is the role of restriction enzymes?
CUTTING LARGE DNA MOLECULES INTO SHORTER PIECES
Which pieces of DNA move fastest in gel electrophoresis?
THE LIGHTEST or SHORTEST
How was the human genome sequences/mapped?
BY FINDING OVERLAPPING REGIONS BETWEEN SEQUENCED DNA FRAGMENTS