S3M1 micro2

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  1. transformation
    • - taking up DNA from the environment that requires "competence"
    • - G+: Strep, Bacillus cereus (quorum sensing)
    • - G-: Nisseria, Haemophilus, Helicobacter (starvation)
  2. Quorum sensing
    • - sensing numbers of bacteria
    • - can be used for competence induction
  3. transductions
    • - DNA transfer mediated by bactriophages
    • - host range is determined by adhesins (eg tail fiber) and host cell receptors
  4. conjugation
    • transfer of DNA from an F+ to and F- bacteria via T4SS
    • conjugative transposons carry tra operon (transfer genes)
  5. transposition
    • - stretches of DNA that can jump to different locations in the genome
    • - can even jump onto plasmids resulting in DNA transfer
  6. generalized transduction
    • - fragment of host DNA is accidently packaged in phage instead of phage DNA
    • - lytic lifecycle
    • - phage injects DNA into recipient cell, so recipient cell is tranduced, but NOT infected
    • ** low success rate**
  7. specialized transduction
    • - prophage excises incorrectly, taking a piece of host chr along with it (in addition to phage DNA)
    • - lysogenic life cycle
    • - may transfer complete host genes when phage infects next recipient
    • -** high success rate**
  8. A-B toxin
    • intracellular exotoxin
    • A= active domain- has toxic enzymatic activity
    • B= binding domain- aims A, binds host receptor, induce endocytosis
    • injected into host via T3SS (sometimes T4SS)
  9. structural toxin
    • component of bacterial cell wall
    • LPS/LOS (G-)->LBP+LPS:TL-4
    • PG (G+,AcF), lipoteichoic acid (G+,AcF)->bind TLR-2,6
    • deleterious effects caused by host IR
  10. Some bacteria that need capsule for virulence-8
    • H. influenza K. pheumoniae
    • N. meningitidis E. coli
    • S. pyogenes B. anthracis
    • S. typhi C. neoformans
  11. alginate
    • aka- mucoid polysaccharide, part of biofilm
    • initially CF isolates are non-mucoid
    • once mucoid, they get aggressive
    • protects against cellular and humoral immunity
  12. anaerobes of the colon
    • Bacteroides spp.
    • Clostridium spp
    • Fusobasterium spp
  13. anaerobes of the vagina
    • Prevotella
    • Bacteroides
    • Fusibacterium
    • Clostridium
  14. anaerobes of the mouth
    Prevotella, Porohymonas, Bacteroides, Fusibacterium, Actinomyces
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S3M1 micro2
2012-06-01 21:47:33
S3M1 micro

S3M1 micro2
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