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  1. Homeostasis
    a state of equilibrium
  2. Disease
    a state of disequilibrium
  3. Pathology
    study of disease in general
  4. Pathophysiology
    the study of the physiological processes leading up to disease
  5. Manifestations of disease
    signs, symptoms & syndrome
  6. Signs of disease
    objective evidence of disease observed on physical examination
  7. Symptoms of disease
    subjective indications of disease reported by the patient
  8. Syndromes of disease
    combination of signs and symptoms of disease
  9. Diagnosis
    Scientific or clinical methods used to determine the nature of disease
  10. Prognosis
    predicted course and outcome of the disease
  11. Acute
    sudden onset and short duration
  12. Chronic
    slower, less severe onset and long duration of months or years
  13. Terminal
    diesease that will end in death
  14. Remission
    The period in which the signs and symptoms of disease subside
  15. Exacerbation
    when the signs and symptoms of disease recur in all their severity
  16. Relapse
    When a disease returns weeks or months after its apparent cessation
  17. Complication
    a disease or other abnormal state that develops in a person already suffering from a disease - may negatively affect the prognosis or course of the original disease
  18. Sequela
    pathological condition resulting from a disease, injury or trauma
  19. Mortality
    number of deaths attributed to a disease
  20. Morbidity
    rate of incidence of disease
  21. Prevalence
    number of cases of a disease occuring at a given time in a specific population
  22. Incidence
    number of new cases of a disease occuring at a given time in a specific population
  23. Epidemiology
    study of the occurance, transmission, distribution and control of a disease
  24. Pathogenesis
    source or cause of a disease along with its development
  25. Lesion
    root casue of a disease (damaged genes, enzymes, abnormal cells, tissues or organs)
  26. Pharmacology
    study of chemicals or drugs on living tissue - from pharmakon (drug) and logos (science)
  27. Manifestations of disease
    Inflammation, autoimmunity, allergy, infection, neoplasm, heredity, malnutrition, stress
  28. Treatments of diseases
    • Where cause is known - surgery or pharmacological agents
    • Where cause is not known - palliative or symptomatic
  29. Physical exam measurements
    BP, temp, pulse, lung sounds, palpation, reflex
  30. Diagnostic tests
    CT, MRI, ultrasound, nuclear medicine, biopsy
  31. Definition of herbal therapy (medicinal botany)
    used to treat common ailments, usually involvs ingesting plant or part of a plant
  32. Hazards of herbal therapy
    • - lack of manufacturing standards and regulatory oversight
    • - drug-herbal therapy interactions
    • - route of administration
  33. Bad reputation of herbal therapy
    • herbs are not typically prescribed
    • few pharmacy schools offer courses in botanical remedies
    • courses offered usually focus more on misuse
    • herbal therapies can't be patented
    • not regulated by FDA
    • not covered by health insurance in US
  34. Good reputation of herbal therapy
    NCCAM (National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine) created by NIH in 1992 to support research on herbal and alternative therapies
  35. Extraction techniques
    Oils, salves, teas, tinctures, capsules, tablets, syrups
  36. Oils
    olive or vegetable oil used to extend life of herb
  37. Salve
    semi-solid fat preparation (cream, balms or ointment) - dried herb mixed with melted wax
  38. Tea
    fresh herbs added to boiling water - either drink it or apply as a topical compress (can be refrigerated and used later)
  39. Tincture
    fresh or dry herbs soaked in vinegar, alcohol or water, which causes the water and/or fat soluable components to concentrate, producing the desired form
  40. Capsule
    contain dried, pulverized herbal powder
  41. Tablet
    contain dried, pulverized herbal powder combined with stabilizers and binders as in pharaceutical tablets
  42. Syrups
    water or oil soaked herb mixed with sweetner such as honey or sugar and then heated
  43. Marshmallow Root
    • active agent: mucilagen
    • common name: none
    • uses: upset stomach, poultice, sore throat, expectorant
  44. White willow bark
    • active agent: salicylic acid
    • common name: asprin
    • uses: headache, fever, pain
  45. Periwinkle
    • active agent: vinca alkaloids
    • common name: vincristine
    • uses: anticancer drugs
  46. Ephedra sinica
    • active agent: ephedra
    • common name: ephedrine
    • uses: asthma, diet
  47. Foxglove
    • active agent: digitalis
    • common name: digoxin
    • uses: increases cardiac contractility, anti-dysrythmic agent
  48. Aloe vera
    • uses: minor burns, insect bites, sunburns, laxatives, increase menstrual flow
    • adverse effects: none
  49. Chamomile
    • uses: digestive and GI disturbances, sedation, anti-allergy
    • adverse effects: hives, brochoconstriction
  50. Dong quai
    • uses: menstrual cramps, regulate menstrual flow
    • adverse effects: fever, excess menstrual bleeding
  51. Echinacea
    • uses: enhances immunity, respiratory and urinary tract infections, snake bites, flu
    • adverse effects: contraindicated in immunocompromised people
  52. Garlic
    • uses: lowers cholesterol and triglycerides, decreased blood pressure, reduces blood clotting capabilities, antibiotic, ear aches, increased endurance
    • adverse effects: none
  53. Ginger
    • uses: enhances immuntiy, digestive and GI disturbances, motion sickness, arthritis
    • adverse effects: none
  54. Ginkgo
    • uses: dementia, intermittent claudication (leg circulation), vertigo (dizziness), tinnitus, cognition
    • adverse effects: headache, GI disturbances
  55. Ginseng
    • uses: stress, energy boost, digestion, arthritis
    • adverse effects: none
  56. Kava kava
    • uses: insomnia, muscle relaxtion
    • adverse effects: none
  57. Licorice
    • uses: anti-hypertensive,anti-inflammatory
    • adverse effects: none
  58. Peppermint
    • uses: stimulates digestion, aid in digestion, bowel disorders, circulation, fever, decongestant, restores energy, tension headache
    • adverse effects: none
  59. Psyllium
    • uses: laxative, hemorrhoids, Crohn's and colitis, IBS
    • adverse effects: none
  60. Sage
    • uses: wound healing, sore throat, dry mother's milk, reduce hot flashes
    • adverse effects: none
  61. Saw palmetto
    • uses: benign prostate hypertrophy and other urinary conditions; expectorant for colds, asthma, brochitis; thryoid deficiency
    • adverse effects: none
  62. Valerian
    • uses: sedative, hypnotic
    • adverse affects: none
  63. Yarrow
    • uses: stops bleeding, healing lotion and ointment, regulates pain and bleeding in menstrual cycle, circulation, anti-hypertensive, anti-spasmodic, anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory
    • adverse dermatitis, contraindicated in pregnancy and epilepsy
Card Set
herbal medicine powerpoints from pharma lecture 1
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