Biology Final

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HannahD
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155944
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Biology Final
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2012-05-26 18:48:41
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Biology Final Review
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A complete review for the final exam of biology.
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  1. This diagram is called a:
    Karyotype
  2. Organims that have too many or too few chromosomes occur as a result of:
    Nondisjunction

  3. The individual represented by this diagram is a:
    Male with Down's syndrome
  4. What is a term used to indicate the presence of one extra chromosome?
    Trisomy
  5. In humans, hemophilia is a recessive, sex-linked disorder. If a woman who is a carrier and a normal man have children, what would be the phenotypic ratio of their children?
    50% normal females (Half of these would be carriers.), 25% normal males, 25% hemophiliac males.
  6. A scientist who studies the interactions between living things and the environment in which they live is called:
    Ecologist
  7. Which of the following would NOT be considered an abiotic factor?
    A. Precipitation
    B. Sunlight
    C. Bacteria
    D. Temperature
    C. Bacteria
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  8. Organisms that break down dead organic matter in an ecosystem are called:
    Decomposers
  9. As you move up the trophic levels in an ecosystem, the amount of energy available:
    Always decreases.
  10. In a mutualistic symbiotic relationship:
    Both organisms benefit
  11. A diagram that illustartes the complex, interconnecting feeding relationships among organisms in an ecosystem is called:
    A food web
  12. Which of the following best describes the relationship between primary succession and a climax community?
    Primary succession will eventually result in the creation of a climax community.
  13. The maximum size of a population is determined by:
    The ecosystem's carrying capacity
  14. The science of grouping organisms in the basis of their similarities is called:
    Taxonomy
  15. Which of the following is a false statement about the first system for classifying organisms?
    A. It was devised by Aristotle.
    B. It classified organisms into 2 kingdoms.
    C. It was developed over 2000 years ago.
    D. It included fungi, protists, archaebacteria, and eubacteria.
    D. It included fungi, protists, archaebacteria, and eubacteria.
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  16. The Swedish botanist, Carolus Linnaeus, improved the classification system of his time by:
    Dividing existing kingdoms into several hierarchical categories, and developing a system for giving each organism a unique, two-part scientific name. (Both b and c.)
  17. List the seven hierarchical categories in order from least specific to most specific.
    • Kindom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species.
    • (King Phillip Came Over For Great Soup.)
  18. Givin the scientific name, Rana pipiens, we are able to determine that this organism belongs to:
    The genus Rana
  19. To illustrate the ancestry of related organisms, scientists commonly construct a visual model called:
    A phylogenetic tree
  20. Similar Genera (plural of genus) may be grouped together in a category called:
    Family
  21. Which of the following categories would contain organisms with the closest presumed evolutionary relationships?
    Family
  22. Modern taxonomists currently recognize _____ kingdoms.
    6
  23. Scientists do not consider viruses to be alive because:
    They are not made of cells, and they cannot reproduce by themselves. (Both a and c.)
  24. What must a virus have in order to reproduce?
    A host cell

  25. This diagram shows how some ____________ reproduce. It is called the _________.
    Viruses/lytic cycle
  26. While studying a sample of pond water, you discover a unicellular, eukaryotic organism that is photosynthetic. You should name it and classify it within the kingdom:
    Protista
  27. Structure A is used for _________ while structure B is used for ________.
    Movement/reproduction
  28. Your doctor diagnoses you with a bacterial infection. What treatment might help you get well faster?
    Antibiotics
  29. Analyze the tesat results at the right. Which antibiotic works best at inhibiting bacterial growth?
    C.
  30. Your doctor diagnoses you with a viral infection. What treatment would help you get well?
    None.
  31. Explain how a vaccine works to prevent illness.
    A damaged version of a virus is injected into the body so that the immune system can make antibodies to fight it off if you ever get infected with a working version of the virus.
  32. What diseases are not caused by bacterial infections?
    Common cold and influenza (the flu)
  33. What diseases are not caused by viral infections?
    Tetanus and botulism
  34. Bacteria reproduce asexually using a process called ______ and sexually through a process called _________.
    Binary fission/ conjugation
  35. The gradual and sequential process of replacing one community with another is called:
    Succession
  36. The type of ecosystem that will exist once this process is complete is primarily determined by:
    Temperature, time, and amount of precipitation. (All of the above.)
  37. What organisms serve as producers?
    Phytoplankton and seaweed. (Only b and c.)
  38. What organism is an herbivore?
    Zoo plankton
  39. What organism is an omnivore?
    Mussels
  40. If prawn were harvested to the point of extinction, which of the following would likely occur?
    (All of the above.)
  41. The challenges that faced early land plants included:
    Conserving water, reproducing on land, absorbing minerals from the rocky surface. (All of the above.)
  42. The ancestors of today's land plants were probably:
    Green algae
  43. The waxy protective covering of a land plant is called:
    Cuticle
  44. Some land plants developed an internal system of interconnected tubes and vessels called:
    Vascular Tissues
  45. The flowers produced by angiosporums help ensure the transfer of gametes by:
    (All of the above.)
  46. The xylem in a plant:
    Transports water and minerals.
  47. A flower is a:
    Reproductive structure
  48. A seed coat:
    Protects the seed from injury, prevents the embryo from dehydration, protects the seeds from disease. (All of the above.)
  49. What were the first land plants to evolve seeds?
    Gymnosperms
  50. The process of transferring pollen from a male cone to a female cone in gymnosperms is called:
    Pollination
  51. Refer to the diagram below right. The structure indicated a f:
    Produces pollen
  52. Refer to the diagram at the right. The structure labeled c:
    Is the area where pollen lands and sticks.
  53. Pollen is produced in a structure called the:
    Anther
  54. If a plant's flowers are very colorful and produce nectar, the plant is probably pollinated by:
    Insects
  55. The production of offspring genetically udentical to the parent plant is the result of:
    Asexual reproductio
  56. After a large meal is eaten, the digestive system needs more blood to perform it's functions, therefore it enlists the help of which other human body system?
    The circulatory system
  57. One of the best known neurotramsmitters is the hormone epinephrine (also called adrenaline). When a person is suddenly stressed or frightened, the brain instantly sends a message to the adrenal glands, which quickly release epinephrine. Which two human body systems are involved in this reaction?
    Nervous and endocrine
  58. Through communication, the body keeps itself in balance- a concept called ____________.
    Homeostasis
  59. This human body system is the first line of defense against infection and injury:
    Integumentary system
  60. The skeletal system and muscular system work together in which of the following ways?
    Control of motor movements
  61. The study of how traits are passed from parents to offspring is called:
    Genetics
  62. This Austrian monk statistically analyzed data from breeding experiments to develop the three basic principles of genetics. For this reason, he is often referred to as the "Father of Genetics."
    Gregor Mendel
  63. A segment of DNA that controls a particular characteristic is called:
    A gene
  64. The two members of a gene are called:
    Alleles
  65. Match the following genotype with the appropriate term: HH
    Homozygous Dominant
  66. What is not an example of a phenotype?
    Heterozygous
  67. A chart used to predict the outcome of a genetic cross is called a:
    Punnett square
  68. What is the expected phenotypic ratio of a cross beteen an individual that is homozygous dominant and one that is homozygous recessive?
    4 Red: 0 white
  69. Assumin complete dominance and T=tall; t=short, what is the expected phenotypic ratio of a cross between two heterozygous individuals?
    1 TT: 2 Tt: 1 tt
  70. Which of the following genotypes would result in a fish with long orange fins?
    LLbb and Llbb (both c and d.)
  71. If you were to mate two F1 golgfish (both are heterozygous) the phenotypic ratio of their F2 offspring would be:
    9:3:3:1.
  72. A testcross is a cross between an individual of unknown genotype and an individual whose genotype is:
    Homozygous recessive
  73. If a cross between a black cat and white cat result in a solid grey kitten, this would be an illustration of:
    Incomplete dominance
  74. If a cross between a solid black & solid white chicken resulted in black & white speckled chicks, this would be a result of:
    Co-dominance
  75. Assuming youo mate two guinea pigs that are heterozygous for both genes, what would be the probability of getting a baby guinea pig that has short brown fur?
    1/16
  76. If a man & woman with four sons decided to have a fifth child, what is the probability that this child will be the girl they've always hoped for?
    50%
  77. A trait controlled by two or more genes such as skin color:
    Polygenic trait
  78. A trait coded for by alleles located on the x chromosome such as hemophelia and color blindness:
    Sex-linked trait
  79. A trait for thich there are more than two alleles found within the population such as blood type:
    Multiple-allele trait
  80. This disorder is characterized by the abnormal shape of an individual's red blood cells which results in severe pain, organ damage due to lack of oxygen, and a genetic resistance to malaria.
    Sickle-cell anemia.

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