Science - Ecology Unit

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Science - Ecology Unit
2012-08-13 19:47:43
Ecology Science 7th

Ecology Study Guide
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  1. What is ecology?
    Ecology is the study of the interactions between organisms and their environment
  2. What is the difference between biotic and abiotic factors? Give examples of each.
    • Biotic are living factors (deer)
    • Abiotic are nonliving factors (rocks)
  3. Define each levels of organization in the environment. Give an example of each.
    • Organism - an individual from one species - llama
    • Population - a species in one area - llamas
    • Community - a mixture of biotic species in one area - llamas, chickens, deer
    • Ecosystem - has both biotic and abiotic factors in one area - llamas, rocks, rivers, deer
  4. Define each of the different ways of obtaining energy and give examples of each.

    • Producers - sunlight - plants
    • Consumers - eat producers
    • Herbivores - eat only plants (deer)
    • Carnivores - eat only meat (bears)
    • Omnivores - eat a variety (humans)
    • Scavengers - eat dead organisms (vulture)
    • Decomposers - breaks down / secretes their food (bacteria)
  5. What is the difference between a food web and a food chain?
    A food web shows the many energy patterns and is more complex than a food chain
  6. What are the 3 things organisms do with the energy they obtain from food?
    Use it, give it off as heat, and store it
  7. What is the order of the levels of consumers?
    Producer, primary consumer, secondary consumer, tertiary consumer
  8. What level of consumer has the most organisms? The least?
    • Most - Producers
    • Least - Tertiary Consumer
  9. What level of consumer has the most energy and biomass? The least?
    • Most - Producers
    • Least - Tertiary Consumer
  10. What is the direction of the energy flow?
    From producer to tertiary consumer (up)
  11. How much energy can be passed from one level to the nextin an energy pyramid?
  12. What is the difference between habitat and niche?
    • Habitat - the environment in which an animal lives
    • Niche - the role of the organism in the environment
  13. Name 3 examples of limiting factors.
    Water, food, shelter, mates
  14. How do limiting factors affect the size of a population?
    It can either increase or decrease the size
  15. How does carrying capacity affect a population?
    It controls the maximum size and amount of animals that an area can support (either increase or decrease)
  16. Define symbiosis. What are the three types? Define the three types.
    • A relationship between two species
    • Commensalism - One organism benefits, the other neither benefits or is harmed
    • Mutualism - Both organisms benefit
    • Parasitism - One organism benefits and the other is harmed
  17. Define predator. Define prey.
    • Predator - captures prey
    • Prey - eaten by predator
  18. What is coevolution?
    A long-term change that takes place in two species because of their close interactions with one another
  19. What is competition?
    When two or more individuals try to use the same limited resource
  20. Define succession and explain how it occurs.
    The gradual regrowth or development of a community of organisms over time - Organims (lichens) begin to help the environment so that life can start
  21. Define biome.
    Geographic area characterized by certain types of plant and animal communities
  22. Explain which abiotic factors determine what biome will be found in a region.
    Temperature and rainfall