Bio Final Ch. 8

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  1. What is a vaccine?
    A substance prepared from killed or weakened microorgannisms that is introduced into the body to produce immunity.
  2. Wha type of bacteria is able to cause disease?
    Virulent Bacteria
  3. What is a bacteriophage?
    A virus that infects bacteria.
  4. What is DNA and what is it made up of?
    A long molecule made of subunits called nucleotides that are linked together.
  5. What are the three parts of a nucleotide?
    A phosphate group, a five-carbon sugar molecule, a nitrogen base
  6. What is the five carbon sugar called?
  7. What two parts of a nucleotide is the same for each nucleotide in a molecule of DNA?
    The sugar molecule and the phosphate group.
  8. What are the four different types of nitrogenous bases?
    adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
  9. Adenine and guanine belong to what class of organic molecules?
  10. Thymine and Cytosine are what type of class that has a single ring of carbon and nitrogen atoms?
  11. What two scientists took X-ray diffraction photographs of the DNA molecule that suggested DNA resembled a tightly coiled helix?
    Maurice Wilkins and Rosalind Franklin
  12. James Watson and Francis Cook used X-ray diffraction photographs to build a model of DNA with the configuration of what?
    Double Helix
  13. How is the DNA double helix consisting of alternating sugar and phosphate units with purine and pyrimidine held together?
    Hydrogen bonds
  14. Why is a pyrimidine always paired with a purine?
    Because that's how they form the hydrogen bonds holding them together.
  15. Which purines bond with which pyrimidines?
    Adenine bonds with Thymine, Cytosine bonds with Guanine
  16. The process of synthesizing a new strand of DNA is called what?
  17. The point at which the double helix separates is called what?
    Replication fork due to Y shape
  18. At the replication fork enzymes known as _____?_____ move along each strand of DNA strand adding nucleotides to exposed bases following he basic-pairing rules.
    DNA polymerases
  19. In eukaryotic organisms they usualy have many replication forks that begin in the middle and move in what direction?... creating what type of bubble?
    Both directions...Replicating Bubbles
  20. What are genes frequently interrupted by?
    Introns which are long segments of nucleotides that have no coding information.
  21. What are the nucleotide segments that code for amino acids called?
    Exons because they are expressed.
Card Set
Bio Final Ch. 8
Chapter 8 Kt112524
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