Bio Final Ch. 12

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Kt112524
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Bio Final Ch. 12
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2012-05-27 18:55:23
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Chapter 12 Kt112524
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  1. What are the four major points of the theory of evolution?
    • 1. Variation exists within the genes of every species (mutation)
    • 2. In a particular environment some individuals of a species are better suited for survival and so leave more offspring (natural selection)
    • 3. Over time change within species leads to the replacement of old species by new species as less successful species become extinct (survival of the fittest)
    • 4. Evidence from fossils and other sources indicate species now on Earth have coevolved (descended) from ancestral forms that are extinct (evolution)
  2. Who was the unpaid naturalist on a naval voyage of the HMS Beagle?
    Charles Darwin
  3. On what islands did Darwin notice the plants and animals resembled those of the nearby coast of South America?
    Galapagos Islands
  4. What was Darwin's theory of the species on the Galapagos Islands?
    They migrated to the islands and then evolved.
  5. What is Darwin's term for the change?
    Descent with Modification
  6. What is the term for the process by which populations change in respose to their environment?
    Natural Selection
  7. The changing of a species that results in its being better suited to its environment is called?
    adaption
  8. Define Population?
    A group of individuals that belong to the same species, live in a defined area, and breed with others in the group
  9. Who did Darwin pair up with to jointly present their idea of evolution at a public scientific meeting?
    Alfred Russel Wallace
  10. In what year did Darwin finish his book and what was it called?
    1859; On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection
  11. What are two constant sources of ne variations for natural selection?
    Mutations and the recombinations of genes
  12. What term refers to change that occurs within a species over time?
    Microevolution
  13. Populations of the same species living in ___________ locations tend to evolve in different directions.
    different
  14. What is isolation?
    The condition in which two population of the same secies are separated from one another
  15. As isolation populations of the same species become increasingly different the populations may no longer be able to do what?
    Interbreed (breed with one another)
  16. When two populations cannot interbreed the populations are considered to be different?
    Species
  17. What two occurences can result in some species becoming extinct?
    Climate changes and Natural Disasters
  18. What does extinct mean?
    The species disappears permanently.
  19. Species that are better suited to the new conditions may replace those that become ___________?
    Extinct
  20. What is macroevolution?
    The evolution of among many species over time.
  21. What is a fossil?
    A perserved or mineralized remain or trace of an organism.
  22. Give some examples of a fossil.
    bone, tooth, shell, footprint, burrow, imprint
  23. When do most fossils?
    When organisms are rapidly buried in fine sediment deposited by water, wind, or volcanic eruptions
  24. What environments are most conducive for fossils?
    Wet lowlands, slow-moving streams, lakes, shallow seas, and areas near volcanoes that spew out volcanic ash
  25. Similarities in body sructures even though functions ay be different are known as?
    Homologous
  26. Homologous share a comon __________?
    Ancestry
  27. What is gradualism?
    The model of evolution in which gradual change over a long period of time leads to species formation
  28. What is the model of evolution in which periods of rapid change in species are separated by periods of little or no change?
    Punctuated Equilibrium

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