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What does the cardiovascular system constist of?
Heart and blood vessels
How are blood vessels arranged?
2 continuous loops: pulmonary circulation and systemic circulation
Where are the heart and great vessels located?
Between the lungs and middle third of the thoracic cage (mediastinum)
What is the precordium?
Area on the anterior chest directly overlying the heart and great vessels.
What are the borders of the heart?
2nd to 5th intercostal space and from the right border of the sternum to the left midclavicular line
Which ventricle forms the greatest area?
The right ventircle forms the greatest area of the anterior cardiac surface.
What do the superior and inferior vena cava do?
Return unoxygenated vneous blood to the right side of the heart.
What happens during the diastole phase?
Heart's filling phase, allow ventricles to fill with blood.
What happens during the systole phase?
Pumping phase, AV valves close to prevent regurgitation of blood back up into the atria.
What is the presystole?
- AKA atrial systole or "atrial kick"-active filling phase
- Causes small rise in left ventricular pressure
What is isometric or isovolumic relaxation?
When all four valves are closed and the ventricles relax.
What are THREE conditions that result in murmur?
- 1. Velocity of blood increased (floow murmur) e.g. in exercise, thyrotoxicosis
- 2. Viscosity of blood decreases (e.g., in anemia
- 3. Structural defects in the valves (narrowed valve, inompetent valve) or unusual openings occur int the chambers (dilated chamber, wall defect)
What are the four ways we describe heart sounds?
- 1. Frequency (pitch)
- 2. Intensity (loudness)
- 3. Duration
- 4. Timing-systole or diastole
How much blood does the resting adult typically pump?
Between 4-6L of blood/minute throughout the body
What is preload?
Venous return that builds during diastole. Length to which the ventricular muscle is stretched at the end of diastole just before contraction.
What is afterload?
Oposing pressue the ventricle must generate to open the aortic valve against the higher aortic pressure. Resistance against which the ventricle must pump its blood.
What do the jugular veins do?
Empy unoxygenated blood directly into the superior vena cava.
What affect does aging have on systolic blood pressure?
Increase due to stiffening of large arteries->creates increase in pulse wave velocity because arteries cannot store volume ejected
What happnes to the left ventricular wall with age?
Thickness increases to accommodate the vascular stiffening that creates increased workload on heart.
How does the heart respond to exercise in the aging adult?
Decreased ability of the heart to augment cardiac output. Decreased max heart rate and diminshed sympathetic response.
How is hypertension defined?
systolic blood pressure greater than or equal to 140 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure of >90 mm Hg or currently taking antihypertensive meds.
When does angina occur?
When heart's own blood supply cannot keep up with metabolic demand.
What happens to the jugular vein if heart failure is present?
- jugular veins will elevate and stay elevated as long as you push.
- elevated pressure is a level of pulsation that is more than 3 cm above the sternal angle while at 45 degrees.
What is a thrill?
- Palpable vibration.
- Significes turbulent blood flow and accompanies loud murmurs.
What is a pulse deficit?
- signals weak contraction of ventricles
- occurs with atiral fibrillation, premature beaths and heart failure