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What are vessels?
tubes for transporting fluid, such as blood or lymph
What kind of diseases might result in the vascular system?
problems with delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues or elimination of waste products from cell metabolism
Howdoes the lymphatic form a different vessel system?
- retrieves excess fluid from tissue spaces and returns it to the bloodstream.
- without lymphatci drainage, fluid would build up in the interstitial spaces and produce edema
What do arteries have to do with our heart rate?
- High pressure system
- Coincide with our heart rate
We don't we palpate the carotid artery at the same time?
Where is the brachial artery?
- main on in the arm
- Feel at the elbow
Where is the ulnar artery?
- On pinky side of wrist
- Runs deep so harder to palpate
Where is the radial artery?
- On thumb side
- Easier to palpate
Where is the femoral artery?
- In the leg, by the groin (heeey!!)
- Usually strong pulse
Where is the popliteal?
Behind the knee
Where it the posterior tibial artery?
on feet, back of ankle
Where is the doraslis pedis artery?
On top of foot
What are the THREE veins in the legs that we care about?
- Femoral (deep)
- Popliteal (deep)
- Great and small saphenous superficial (will take those out for grafting)
How does venous flow work? (FIVE ways)
- Muscles send blood back to the heart
- Breathing works on pressure gradients
- thoracic pressure decreases
- abdominals pressure increases and affects blood flow. Intravenous valves allows blood to not go backwards.
What are FOUR fx of the Lymphatic System?
- Huge part of immune system
- conserve plasma proteins
- absorbs lipids from digestive tract
What are FOUR related organs to the LS?
- Spleen: filter RBCS, gets rid of old RBCs, produces antibodies
- Thymus: T-lymphocytes, bigger in kids.
- Tonsils: involuted, granulated, pink.
- Bone marrow
Why does the R lymphatic duct do less than the L lymphatic duct?
Left lymphatic duct drains into L lymph duct
What happens to peripheral blood vessels with the aging adult?
Arteriosclerosis with aging->increased Systolic Bld Pressure
How does aging affect the intramuscular calf veins?
Pregressive enlargement of intramuscular calf veins
What happens with prolonged bedrest, prolonged immobility, and heart failure in the aging adult?
Increase the risk for deep venous thrombosis and subseuqent pulmonary embolism. Can take baby aspirin.
What does arterial insuffiency look like?
Thin, shiny skin, thick nails, decreased hair on legs
What is the difference between bilateral and unilateral edema?
- unilateral=localized (clot?)
What does early clubbing signify?
Where do you feel the epitrochlear lymph node?
How do you check arterial deficit?
If someone is laying down, pick legs up 30 cm and let arterial blood drain off so only vein blood left. Look to see if color returns bilaterally within 10-15 seconds.
What does a weak thready pulse signify?
decreased CO2, PAD, Aortic stenosis
Why might there be a full bounding pulse?
Hyperkinetic states (exercise, anxiety, fever), anemia, hyperthyroidism
What is pulsus alternans?
Heart failure: When HR normal-occurs with severe left ventricular failure
What is Pulses bigeminus?
conduction disturbance (premature ventricular contraction, premature arterial contraction)
What is Pulsus paradoxus?
cardiac tamponade; sever bronchospasm of acute asthma
What is Pulses bisferiens?
aortic valve stenosis+ regurgitation
How would you know if someone has Raynaud's syndrome?
cold, vibration, stress will change color in hands
What's the difference between an ischemic ulcer and a venous (stasis) ulcer?
- ischemic ulcer-defined, round
- venous-undefined, brown, hard to keep dressed.
What is the most common type of occlusion?
How are lymph nodes different between adults and children?
Atrophy in adults