Card Set Information
8th Grade Science Review for Final Semester Exam
Water vapor in the air turns to liquid in the form of rain. This is an example of what.?
The process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another is called what.?
The process in which sediments laid down in a new location is called
What type of energy is involved when a river moves sediment and erodes it's banks?
Name a human activity that can make the impact of a natural hazard more severe?
Cutting down forests
Constructive forces shape Earths surface by...
Building up mountains and landmasses.
The layer of Earth made up largely of the rocks basalt and granite is the...
As depth beneath Earth's surface increases, temperature and pressure...
Name the order (starting from the surface) of the Earth's layer.
Crust-> Mantle-> outer core
-> Inner core
Earths inner core is made of
A dense ball of solid metal(iron and nickel).
The transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves is called
Scientists think that convection flow on Earths...
When the heat source is removed from a fluid, convection currents in the fluid will do what?
What type of evidence did Alfred Wegener use to support his continental drift theory.?
1. Evidence from landforms
2. Evidence from fossils
3. Evidence of climate changes
What technology did scientists use in the mid 1900's to map the mid ocean ridge?
In the process of sea-floor spreading, where does molten material rise from the mantle and erupt.?
What did scientists in a submersible see when they observed the mid-ocean ridge.?
Ricks formed by the hardening of molten materials
The process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle is known as...
Old oceanic crust is more dense than new oceanic crust because it is
Geologists think that the movement of Earth's Plates is caused by
Convection currents in the mantle
The geologists theory that states the pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant, slow motion is the theory of...
A collision between two pieces of continental crust at a convergent boundary produces a
A weak spot in earths crust where magma comes to the surface is called a
What causes land subsidence?
Plate movements along divergent boundaries
Without the ozone layer, what will occur more often?
Sun burns, eye damage, and skin cancer
Most of earths surface is covered with
Some form of water
Water in the atmosphere is in the form of a gas known as
The process by which water vapor in the atmosphere cools and becomes liquid is called
Most of earths water is
Salt water (97%).
What makes it difficult o use freshwater supplies?
Supplies are often far away from where people live.
Chemicals that kill crop destroying organisms and often pollute water sources are
Why happens to the bacteria that break down oil after an oil spill.?
They multiply and are always present in the ocean.
A technique that uses sound waves to calculate the distance to an object is what.?
Name 3 reasons why it's difficult to study the ocean floor...
1. It's very deep and completely dark.
2. It's freezing
3. The water pressure is extremely high.
A deep cannon in the ocean floor is called an
A nearly flat region of the ocean floor, covered with thick layers of sediment is called an
A gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent is he
The edge of a continent, where rock that makes up the continent stops and the rockof the ocean floor begins is the
Spring tides occur how many times a month.?
And during what phases of the moon.?
Full moon and New Moon
Tides are caused by..
Gravitational interaction between the Sun, Earth, and Moon.
A tide with the least difference between high tide and low tide is called
How long dies it take to move through all the phases in te lunar cycle.?
Name the 4 main phases of the lunar cycle...
New moon-> 1st Quarter-> Full moon-> 3rd Quarter
Benthos are organisms that live
On the ocean floor
Free-swimming animals that can move throughout the water column are called
Give two examples of nekton
Estuaries often contain brackish water, which is
A mixture of fresh water and salt water.
Coastal wetland that feature short, gnarled trees with anchoring prop roots are called
The major plant in a salt marsh is
Name the 3 ways to reduce erosion and their definitions.
3. Barrier Beaches
The part of the ocean that extends from the low-tide line to the edge of the continental shelf is the
Most of the worlds major ocean fishing area are located in the
The only part of the open ocean that can support the growth of algae is the
The organisms that form the base of most open ocean food webs are
An area where ocean water sinks in cracks in the ocean floor, where it is heated by the underlying magma, and then rises again is called a
The organisms that live around hydrothermal vents get their energy from
Chemicals coming out of Earths interior.
Harvesting fish at a faster rate than they can produce is called what.? And is bad why.?
Because it can extinct species
Most ocean pollution comes from
Name 3 living and 3 nonliving resources found in the ocean.
1. Sea salt
2. Tidal Power
Who owns the majority of the ocean.?
What kind of energy heats most of earths atmosphere.?
What is the greenhouse effect.?
The process by which gasses in the earths atmosphere trap solar energy.
What's thermal energy?
Total amount of energy in the molecules of a substance.
1. Directly passing heat between 2 touching surfaces.
2. Enjoying energy by electromagnetic waves.
3. Circulation of heat through a liquid
Campfires transfer heat by what.?
Whereas, the troposphere is heated by what.?
Convection occurs because of difference in
The densities of warm fluid and cold fluids.
Cool air masses tend to move where when they come into contact with warm air masses.?
Down, because cool air is more dense.
: cold air is more dense than warm air.
What causes land breezes.?
When land cools off faster than water.
What is the Coriolis effect.?
Earths winds seem to bend due to earths rotation
How do clouds form.?
When water vapor in the air become liquid water or ice crystals.
What are the latitude locations for each of the following zones:
1) Tropical zone
2) Temperate zone
3) Polar zone
1) 23.5 N-23.5 S
2) 23.5 N-66.5 N or 23.5 S-66.5 N
3) 66.5 N and above or 66.5 S and below.
The farther you live from an ocean the more likely you will have a ______ climate.
How does the climate on the leeward side of a mountain differ from the windward side.?
The windward side of a mountain receives more rain.
What causes summer.?
Longer days and more direct rays from the sun.
Climates are classified by: ________ and amount of ________.
A tropical wet climate in the U.S. occurs in what state.?
Humid continental and subarctic climates are examples of what kind of climates.?
Permafrost, mosses, lichens, and wildflowers are common in which climate area.?
How can increased carbon dioxide emissions cause global warming.?
By reducing the amount of oxygen and trapping more heat in the atmosphere.
What does Earths ozone layer do.?
Filters harmful UV rays fr the sun
Maritime Polar: Location and Temperature
Over water, close to polar region.
Maritime Tropical: Location and Temperature
In the oceans, close to equator.
Continental Polar: Location and Description
Land on polar region.
On land over equator.
What results when a rapidly moving cold air mass runs into a warm air mass.?
What is the difference between a hurricane, tornado, and cyclone.?
Tornado is a rotating column of air on land, hurricane is a tropical with low air pressure in the water, cyclone is a closed circular motion in water AND air.
On a weather map, small lines at the end of a shaft represent what.?
On a weather map, places with the same temperature are connected by
What is El Nino and where does it form.?
Forms over the tropical pacific ocean and is a change in weather due to a change in wind and waters temperature.
What is migration?
When animals move to a new place to live
What is courtship behavior.?
Behavior of males and females used to attract a mate
What is an instinct.?
Ability to do something without being thought.
What is imprinting.?
When an animal recognizes its mother immediately at birth.
How does natural selection lead to changes in a species.?
Helpful variations accumulate among surviving members of a species.
What's a system.?
Group of parts that work together to accomplish a certain job.
What is a cell.?
Basic Unit of life; Smallest living union.
What is an organ.?
Group of Tissues working together
What is a tissue.?
A group of cells working together.
What is an orgainsm.?
A group of organ systems working together.
What substance enters the body through the lungs and is used by the body's cells.?
What is turgor pressure.?
The pressure of water against the cell wall of a plant cell.
A place where an organism lives which provides the necessities of the organism.
Factors that limit the organisms habitat.
Genetic Traits that help an organism survive and reproduce.
An organisms particular role.
The struggle between two organisms in an environment is called...
What is predetation.?
When one organism hunts and kills another for food.
Know the difference between predator and prey adaptation. For example, a frog's colors are
adaptaions and a Cheetah's speed is
Where one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
When both species benefit.
When one organism lives in or on another and harms it.