science.txt

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Author:
Chrisi
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156122
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science.txt
Updated:
2012-05-28 14:30:24
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Science Review
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8th Grade Science Review for Final Semester Exam
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  1. Water vapor in the air turns to liquid in the form of rain. This is an example of what.?
    Physical Change
  2. The process by which natural forces move weathered rock and soil from one place to another is called what.?
    Erosion
  3. The process in which sediments laid down in a new location is called
    Deposition
  4. What type of energy is involved when a river moves sediment and erodes it's banks?
    Kinetic energy
  5. Name a human activity that can make the impact of a natural hazard more severe?
    Cutting down forests
  6. Constructive forces shape Earths surface by...
    Building up mountains and landmasses.
  7. The layer of Earth made up largely of the rocks basalt and granite is the...
    Crust
  8. As depth beneath Earth's surface increases, temperature and pressure...
    Increase
  9. Name the order (starting from the surface) of the Earth's layer.
    • Crust-> Mantle-> outer core
    • -> Inner core
  10. Earths inner core is made of
    A dense ball of solid metal(iron and nickel).
  11. The transfer of heat by electromagnetic waves is called
    Radiation
  12. Scientists think that convection flow on Earths...
    Astenosphere
  13. When the heat source is removed from a fluid, convection currents in the fluid will do what?
    Eventually stop
  14. What type of evidence did Alfred Wegener use to support his continental drift theory.?
    • 1. Evidence from landforms
    • 2. Evidence from fossils
    • 3. Evidence of climate changes
  15. What technology did scientists use in the mid 1900's to map the mid ocean ridge?
    Sonar Device
  16. In the process of sea-floor spreading, where does molten material rise from the mantle and erupt.?
    Mid-ocean ridge
  17. What did scientists in a submersible see when they observed the mid-ocean ridge.?
    Ricks formed by the hardening of molten materials
  18. The process by which the ocean floor sinks beneath a deep-ocean trench and back into the mantle is known as...
    Subduction
  19. Old oceanic crust is more dense than new oceanic crust because it is
    Cooler
  20. Geologists think that the movement of Earth's Plates is caused by
    Convection currents in the mantle
  21. The geologists theory that states the pieces of Earth's lithosphere are in constant, slow motion is the theory of...
    Plate tectonics
  22. A collision between two pieces of continental crust at a convergent boundary produces a
    Mountain Range
  23. A weak spot in earths crust where magma comes to the surface is called a
    Volcano
  24. What causes land subsidence?
    Plate movements along divergent boundaries
  25. Without the ozone layer, what will occur more often?
    Sun burns, eye damage, and skin cancer
  26. Most of earths surface is covered with
    Some form of water
  27. Water in the atmosphere is in the form of a gas known as
    Water vapor
  28. The process by which water vapor in the atmosphere cools and becomes liquid is called
    Condensation
  29. Most of earths water is
    Salt water (97%).
  30. What makes it difficult o use freshwater supplies?
    Supplies are often far away from where people live.
  31. Chemicals that kill crop destroying organisms and often pollute water sources are
    Pesticides
  32. Why happens to the bacteria that break down oil after an oil spill.?
    They multiply and are always present in the ocean.
  33. A technique that uses sound waves to calculate the distance to an object is what.?
    A sonar
  34. Name 3 reasons why it's difficult to study the ocean floor...
    • 1. It's very deep and completely dark.
    • 2. It's freezing
    • 3. The water pressure is extremely high.
  35. A deep cannon in the ocean floor is called an
    Ocean trench
  36. A nearly flat region of the ocean floor, covered with thick layers of sediment is called an
    Abyssal Plain
  37. A gently sloping, shallow area of the ocean floor that extends outward from the edge of a continent is he
    Continental Shelf
  38. The edge of a continent, where rock that makes up the continent stops and the rockof the ocean floor begins is the
    Continental slop
  39. Spring tides occur how many times a month.?
    • And during what phases of the moon.?
    • Twice
    • Full moon and New Moon
  40. Tides are caused by..
    Gravitational interaction between the Sun, Earth, and Moon.
  41. A tide with the least difference between high tide and low tide is called
    Neap tide
  42. How long dies it take to move through all the phases in te lunar cycle.?
    • Name the 4 main phases of the lunar cycle...
    • 29.5 days
    • New moon-> 1st Quarter-> Full moon-> 3rd Quarter
  43. Benthos are organisms that live
    On the ocean floor
  44. Free-swimming animals that can move throughout the water column are called
    Nekton
  45. Give two examples of nekton
    • 1. Whale
    • 2. Dolphin
  46. Estuaries often contain brackish water, which is
    A mixture of fresh water and salt water.
  47. Coastal wetland that feature short, gnarled trees with anchoring prop roots are called
    Mangrove forests
  48. The major plant in a salt marsh is
    Cord grass
  49. Name the 3 ways to reduce erosion and their definitions.
    • 1. Groins
    • 2. Dunes
    • 3. Barrier Beaches
  50. The part of the ocean that extends from the low-tide line to the edge of the continental shelf is the
    Neritic zone
  51. Most of the worlds major ocean fishing area are located in the
    Neurotic zone.
  52. The only part of the open ocean that can support the growth of algae is the
    Surface Zone
  53. The organisms that form the base of most open ocean food webs are
    Plankton
  54. An area where ocean water sinks in cracks in the ocean floor, where it is heated by the underlying magma, and then rises again is called a
    Hydrothermal Vent
  55. The organisms that live around hydrothermal vents get their energy from
    Chemicals coming out of Earths interior.
  56. Harvesting fish at a faster rate than they can produce is called what.? And is bad why.?
    • Overfishing
    • Because it can extinct species
  57. Most ocean pollution comes from
    The land
  58. Name 3 living and 3 nonliving resources found in the ocean.
    • Living:
    • 1. Fish
    • 2. Crustaceans
    • 3. Sponges

    • Nonliving:
    • 1. Sea salt
    • 2. Tidal Power
    • 3. Oil
  59. Who owns the majority of the ocean.?
    No one
  60. What kind of energy heats most of earths atmosphere.?
    Infrared Radiation
  61. What is the greenhouse effect.?
    The process by which gasses in the earths atmosphere trap solar energy.
  62. What's thermal energy?
    Total amount of energy in the molecules of a substance.
  63. What is
    1: Conduction
    2: Radiation
    3: Convection
  64. 1. Directly passing heat between 2 touching surfaces.
    • 2. Enjoying energy by electromagnetic waves.
    • 3. Circulation of heat through a liquid
  65. Campfires transfer heat by what.?
    • Whereas, the troposphere is heated by what.?
    • Electromagnetic radiation
    • Convection
  66. Convection occurs because of difference in
    The densities of warm fluid and cold fluids.
  67. Cool air masses tend to move where when they come into contact with warm air masses.?
    • Down, because cool air is more dense.
    • Example: cold air is more dense than warm air.
  68. What causes land breezes.?
  69. When land cools off faster than water.
  70. What is the Coriolis effect.?
    Earths winds seem to bend due to earths rotation
  71. How do clouds form.?
    When water vapor in the air become liquid water or ice crystals.
  72. What are the latitude locations for each of the following zones:
    1) Tropical zone
    2) Temperate zone
    3) Polar zone
  73. 1) 23.5 N-23.5 S
    • 2) 23.5 N-66.5 N or 23.5 S-66.5 N
    • 3) 66.5 N and above or 66.5 S and below.
  74. The farther you live from an ocean the more likely you will have a ______ climate.
    Continental
  75. How does the climate on the leeward side of a mountain differ from the windward side.?
    The windward side of a mountain receives more rain.
  76. What causes summer.?
    Longer days and more direct rays from the sun.
  77. Climates are classified by: ________ and amount of ________.
    Temperature, precipitation.
  78. A tropical wet climate in the U.S. occurs in what state.?
    Florida.
  79. Humid continental and subarctic climates are examples of what kind of climates.?
    Temperate Continental
  80. Permafrost, mosses, lichens, and wildflowers are common in which climate area.?
    Tundra
  81. How can increased carbon dioxide emissions cause global warming.?
    By reducing the amount of oxygen and trapping more heat in the atmosphere.
  82. What does Earths ozone layer do.?
    Filters harmful UV rays fr the sun
  83. Maritime Polar: Location and Temperature
    • Over water, close to polar region.
    • COLD
  84. Maritime Tropical: Location and Temperature
    • In the oceans, close to equator.
    • HOT
  85. Continental Polar: Location and Description
    • Land on polar region.
    • COLD
  86. Continental Tropical
    • On land over equator.
    • HOT
  87. What results when a rapidly moving cold air mass runs into a warm air mass.?
    Cold Fronts
  88. What is the difference between a hurricane, tornado, and cyclone.?
    Tornado is a rotating column of air on land, hurricane is a tropical with low air pressure in the water, cyclone is a closed circular motion in water AND air.
  89. On a weather map, small lines at the end of a shaft represent what.?
    Wind speed
  90. On a weather map, places with the same temperature are connected by
    Isobars
  91. What is El Nino and where does it form.?
    Forms over the tropical pacific ocean and is a change in weather due to a change in wind and waters temperature.
  92. What is migration?
    When animals move to a new place to live
  93. What is courtship behavior.?
    Behavior of males and females used to attract a mate
  94. What is an instinct.?
    Ability to do something without being thought.
  95. What is imprinting.?
    When an animal recognizes its mother immediately at birth.
  96. How does natural selection lead to changes in a species.?
    Helpful variations accumulate among surviving members of a species.
  97. What's a system.?
    Group of parts that work together to accomplish a certain job.
  98. What is a cell.?
    Basic Unit of life; Smallest living union.
  99. What is an organ.?
    Group of Tissues working together
  100. What is a tissue.?
    A group of cells working together.
  101. What is an orgainsm.?
    A group of organ systems working together.
  102. What substance enters the body through the lungs and is used by the body's cells.?
    Oxygen
  103. What is turgor pressure.?
    The pressure of water against the cell wall of a plant cell.
  104. Define Habitat.
    A place where an organism lives which provides the necessities of the organism.
  105. Define Limiting Factors.
    Factors that limit the organisms habitat.
  106. Define Biotic Factors.
    Living Factors
  107. Define Adaptations.
    Genetic Traits that help an organism survive and reproduce.
  108. Define Niche.
    An organisms particular role.
  109. The struggle between two organisms in an environment is called...
    Competition
  110. What is predetation.?
    When one organism hunts and kills another for food.
  111. Know the difference between predator and prey adaptation. For example, a frog's colors are adaptaions and a Cheetah's speed is adaptation.
    • Prey
    • Predator
  112. Define Commensalism.
    Where one species benefits and the other is neither helped nor harmed.
  113. Define Mutalism.
    When both species benefit.
  114. Define Parasitism.
    When one organism lives in or on another and harms it.

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