oncology and radiology

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156146
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oncology and radiology
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2012-05-28 17:43:55
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oncology and radiation
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  1. electrocauterization
    buring or destruction of tissue using electrical heat
  2. cauter /o
    burn, heat
  3. carcinoma in situ
    localized tumor growth; confined to the site of origin. cancer of the cervix may begin as carcinoma in situ
  4. carcin / o
    cancer, cancerous
  5. cachexia
    general ill health and malnutrition associated with chronic, severe disease
  6. cac / o
    bad
  7. alveolar
    pertaining to a tumor growth and small microscopic sacs. commonly found in tumors of muscle, bone, fat,and cartilage
  8. alveol / o
    small sac
  9. chemotherapy
    treatment using drugs
  10. chem / o
    chemical, drug
  11. cry / o
    cold
  12. cryosurgery
    surgery using extreme cold
  13. cyst / o
    sac of fluid
  14. cystic tumor
    tumor with large open spaces filled with fluid (visible with the naked eye). most common site are the ovaries
  15. fibr / o
    fibers
  16. fibrosarcoma
    malignant tumor of fiber producing cells
  17. follicul / o
    small glandular sacs
  18. follicular
    pertaining to a tumor growth and small glandular sacs
  19. fung / i
    fungus, mushroom
  20. fungating tumor
    tumor growth in a mushrooming pattern
  21. medull / o
    soft, inner part
  22. medullary tumor
    large, soft, fleshy tumor. Thyroid and breast tumors may be meduallay
  23. mucos / o
    mucous membrane
  24. mucositis
    inflammation of the mucous membrane [side effect]
  25. mut / a
    genetic change
  26. mutation
    PROCESS of genetic change
  27. mutagen / o
    causing genetic change
  28. mutagenic
    pertaining to CAUSING genetic change
  29. necr / o
    death
  30. necrotic
    pertaining to death (individual cells or tissue).
  31. onc / o
    tumor
  32. oncology
    study of tumors
  33. papill / o
    nipple-like
  34. papillary
    pertaining to a tumor growth and small finger (nipple) - like patterns
  35. pharmac / o
    chemical drug
  36. pharmacokinetics
    pertaining to the movement of drugs through the body
  37. plas / o
    formation
  38. dysplastic
    pertaining to an abnormal growth of cells; not yet cancer. nevi (moles)
  39. ple / o
    many, more
  40. pleomorphic
    pertaining to tumors composed of a variety of cell types. mix-celled tumors
  41. polyp / o
    polyp
  42. polypoid tumor
    tumors that grow in projections from a base
  43. prot / o
    first
  44. protocol
    a written plan of treatment
  45. radi / o
    rays
  46. radiation
    use of radioactive subsatances in the diagnoses and treatment of disease
  47. sarc / o
    flesh, connective tissue
  48. osteosarcoma
    malignant tumor of bone
  49. scirrh / o
    hard
  50. scirrhous
    pertaining to a hard, densly packed tumor. commonly found in breast or stomach cancers
  51. xer / o
    dry
  52. xerostomia
    condition of dry mouth [side effect]
  53. -blastoma
    immature tumor
  54. retinoblastoma
    malignant tumor of the retina (congenital)
  55. neuroblastoma
    malignant tumor of embryonic nerve tissue
  56. -genesis
    formation
  57. angiogenesis
    formation of blood vessels
  58. -oma
    mass, tumor
  59. adenocarcinoma
    cancerous tumor of glandular tissue
  60. -plasia
    formation, growth
  61. hyperplasia
    increase in the number of cells
  62. -plasm
    formation, growth
  63. neoplasm
    new growth
  64. -suppression
    to stop
  65. myelosuppression
    inhibition of bone marrow
  66. -therapy
    treatment
  67. radiotherapy
    treatment using radiation or radioactive substances
  68. ana-
    backward
  69. anaplasia
    reversion of cells to a more embryonic state
  70. apo-
    off, away
  71. apoptosis
    programed cell death
  72. brachy -
    short (distance)
  73. epi -
    upon
  74. brachytherapy
    radiation delivered in close range to tumors origin
  75. epidermoid
    resembling epidermal tissue
  76. meta -
    beyond; change
  77. metastasis
    spread of a malignant tumor beyond the site of origin (to a secondary site)
  78. metaplasia
    abnormal trasformation of adult differentiated cells to a different tissue of another kind
  79. tele -
    far
  80. teletherapy
    radiation is delivered at a distance to the tumor
  81. fluoroscopy
    projection of a x-ray on a fluorescent screen
  82. is / o
    same
  83. radioisotope
    radioactive form of an element
  84. pharmaceut / o
    drug
  85. radiopharmaceutical
    pertaining to the combination of a radioisotope and drug
  86. radi / o
    x-rays
  87. radiographer
    one who records x-rays
  88. radiology
    study of x-rays
  89. son / o
    sound
  90. hysterosonogram
    record of the uterus using soundwaves
  91. therapeut / o
    treatment
  92. therapeutic
    pertaining to treatment
  93. vitr / o
    glassy
  94. in vitro
    experiment preformed in a test tube
  95. viv/ o
    life
  96. in vivo
    experiment preformed in a body
  97. -gram
    record
  98. angiogram
    x-ray record of blood vessels
  99. -graphy
    process of recording
  100. hysterosalpingogram
    x-ray record of the uterus and fallopian tubes
  101. pyelogram
    x-ray record of the renal pelvis
  102. computed tomography
    process of recording x-rays in a cross-sectional view with the aid of a computer
  103. -lucent
    to shine
  104. radiolucent
    permits the passage of x-rays {lungs}
  105. -opaque
    obscure
  106. radiopaque
    obscure the passage of x-rays {bones}
  107. echo -
    a repeated sound
  108. echocardiography
    process of recodring images of the heart using sound waves
  109. ultra-
    beyond
  110. ultrasonography
    process of recording images of the body using soundwaves
  111. 2 types of tumors (neoplasms)
    Benign, Malignant
  112. characteristics of benign tumors
    • 1. grow slowly
    • 2. encapsulated (contained within a fibrous capsule or cover)and noninvasive
    • 3. composed of organized and specialized (differentiated) cells that closely resemble the normal, mature tissue from which they are derived.
    • 4. do not spread; nonmetastatic
  113. characteristics of malignant tumors
    • 1. multiply rapidly
    • 2. invasive and infiltrative
    • 3. lack orderly arrangement. Undifferentiated and anaplastic.
    • 4.detaches from primary site, penetrates blood or lymphatic vessels, travels through bloodstream, establishes a new site at a distance tissue; metastatic
  114. Two functions of DNA
    • 1. Mitosis - process of cell division
    • 2. Protein Synthesis - creating new proteins for cellular growth
  115. carcinogens
    agents that cause cancer; chemicals and drugs, radiation, and viruses
  116. oncogenes
    pieces of normal DNA
  117. histogenesis
    identifying the particular type of tissue from which the tumor cells arise.
  118. 3 classifications of cancerous tumors
    • 1. carcinomas
    • 2. sarcomas
    • 3. mixed-tissue tumors
  119. carcinomas
    the largest group, solid tumors that are derived from EPITHELIAL tissue that lines external and internal body surfaces.
  120. sarcomas
    Malignant tumors, derived from CONNECTIVE tissue such as bone, fat, muscle, cartilage, and bone marrow
  121. Mix-tissue tumors
    derived from tissue that is capable of differentiation into both epithelial and connective tissue.
  122. diffuse
    spreading evenly throughout the affected tissue.. malignant lymphomas
  123. undifferentiated
    lacking microscopic structures typical of normal cells
  124. Grading
    • apperance of the tumor cells.
    • 1. very well-differentiation
    • 2&3. intermediate in apperance
    • 4. undifferentiated of anaplastic
  125. Staging
    • extent of spread of the tumor
    • T. specifies the size and degree of local extension
    • N. number of regional lymph node that have been invaded
    • M. specifies the presence of absence of metastases
  126. Four major approaches to cancer treatment
    • 1. surgery
    • 2. radiation
    • 3. chemotherapy
    • 4. biological therapy
  127. method
    modality
  128. core needle biopsy
    palcement of a large-bone needle that extracts a thin core of tissue
  129. excisional biopsy
    removal of tumor and margin of normal tissue
  130. fine needle aspiration
    placement of a very thin needle inside the tumor mass and extracting cells for microscopic evaluation
  131. incisional biopsy
    piece of tumor is removed for examination to establish a diagnosis.
  132. goal of radiation therapy (RT)
    to deliver a maximal dose of ionizing radiation to the tumor tissue and a minimal dose to the surrounding normal tissue
  133. radiocurable tumor
    tumor that can be completely eradicated by radiation therapy. usually no evidence of metastasis; lymphomas and Hodgkin disease
  134. radioresistant tumor
    tumor that requires large doses of radiation to produce death cells. melanoma and renal carcinoma
  135. radiosensitive tumor
    tumor in which irradiation can cause the death of cells without serious damage to surrounding tissue(morbidity). hematipoietic (blood-forming) and lymphatic origins
  136. side effects of radiotherapy
    • alopecia (baldness)
    • fibrosis (increase in connective tissue)
    • mucositis (Inflammation and ulceration of mucous membranes)
    • myelosuppression (bone marrow depression)
    • nausea and vomiting
    • pneumonitis (inflammation of the lungs)
    • xerostomia (dryness of mouth)
  137. biological therapy
    uses the body's own defenses to fight tumor cells
  138. bx
    biopsy
  139. TNM
    tumor, nodes, metastases
  140. staging laparotomy
    wide incision of the abdomen to detect disease
  141. AP
    anteroposterior
  142. CT
    computer tomography
  143. CXR
    chest x-ray
  144. ECHO
    echocardiography
  145. PACS
    picture archival and communications system (replacement of traditional films with digital equivalents that can be accessed from several places and retrieved more rapidly)
  146. radiology is also called..
    roentgenology
  147. UGI
    upper gastrointestinal (series)
  148. nuclear medicine
    specialty that uses radioactive substances in the diagnosis and treatment of disease
  149. radiologist
    physician who specializes in the practice of diagnostic radiology
  150. nuclear medicine physician
    specializes in diagnostic nuclear medicine procedures
  151. radiologic technologists
    allied health care professionals who work with physicains
  152. radiographers
    aid physicians in administering diagnostic x-ray procedures
  153. nuclear medicine technologists
    attend to patients undergoing nuclear medicine procedures and opperate devices under the direction of the physician
  154. sonographers
    aid physicians in preforming ultrasounds
  155. characteristics of xrays
    • 1. ability to cause exposure of a photographic plate
    • 2. ablitty to penetrate different substances to varying degrees
    • 3. invisibility (film badge)
    • 4. travel in straight lines
    • 5. scattering of x-rays
    • 6. ionization
  156. mammography
    low-dose x-rays to visualize breast tissue
  157. contrast studies
    visualizes body structures better
  158. barium sulfate
    radiopaque medium that is mixed in water and used for examination of the upper and lower GI tract.
  159. double-contrast study
    uses both radiopaque and radiolucent contrast medium
  160. iodine compounds
    radiopaque fluids containing up to 50% iodine
  161. cholangiography
    x-ray imaging after injection of contrast into bile ducts
  162. digital subtraction angiography (DSA)
    x-ray image of contrast-injected blood vessels is produced by taking two x-ray pictures and using a computer to subtract obscuring shadows from the second image
  163. hysterosalpingography
    x-ray record of the endometrial cavity and fallopian tubes is obtained after injection of contrast material through the vagina and into the endocervical canal
  164. myelography
    x-ray imaging of the spinal cord after injection of contrast agent into the subarachnoid space surrounding the spinal cord
  165. *digital imaging techniques can be used to enhance conventional and fluoroscopic x-ray images
  166. interventional radiology
    therapeutic or diagnostic procedures preformed by a radiologist.
  167. ultrasonography
    high frequency inaudible sound waves that bouce off body tissues and are the recorded to give information about the anatomy of an internal organ
  168. doppler ultrasound
    record of blood flow velocity
  169. color flow imaging
    record of blood flow velocity
  170. x-ray positioning
    • 1. posteroanterior (PA) view - posterior to anterior.
    • 2. anteroposterior (AP) view - anterior to posterior
    • 3. lateral - one armpit to the other
    • 4. oblique - slanting direction at an angle from the perpendicular plane (/)
  171. radionuclide
    substance that gives off high-energy particles or rays as it disintergrates
  172. uptake
    rate of absorption of the radiopharmaceutical into an organ or tissue

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