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Where is the medial malleolus?
end of tibia
Where is the lateral malleolus?
end of fibula
What is the largest, most post. tarsal bone?
What is the calcaneal tuberosity?
projection on the post inferior surface of calcaneus
What is the sustentaculum tali?
medial superior part of calcaneus, supports medial side of talus
What sits on the calcaneus , inferior to the tibia?
Where is the navicular bone?
medial side, infront of the talus
What is the navicular tuberosity?
projection on the medial side of the navicular
What is on the lateral side of the foot, just proximal to the 4th and 5th metatarsals?
How many cuneiforms are there?
3 - 1st, 2nd, 3rd
Which metatarsals are WBing?
1st and 5th
What is the true ankle jt?
- talus and tibia articulate
- uniaxial synovial
Which jts are inseparable?
subtalar (talocalcaneal) and transverse tarsal (midtarsal)
What jt is located on the inferior surface of the talus and superior portion of calcaneus?
Where is the transverse tarsal jt?
- ant. talus and calcaneus articulate with post. navicular and cuboid
What are the articulations for the intertarsals/tarsometatarsal jts?
cuneiforms and cuboid articulate with all metatarsals
Where do the metatarsals meet phalanges?
What type of jt is the inferior tibiofibular jt?
- syndesmosis (ligamentous)
- little to no motion
What is another name for a pronated foot?
supple foot (flat foot)
What is another name for a supinated foot?
What toe motion is very important for push-off in gait?
Which toe is the most mobile?
What ligament spans the medial ankle, is very thick and strong, and has 4 parts?
medial collateral (deltoid ligament)
What are the 4 parts of the deltoid ligament?
- tibionavicular (anterior)
- tibiocalcaneal (middle)
- posterior tibiotalar (posterior)
- anterior tibiotalar (deep)
Where is the lateral collateral ligament located?
- lateral lig
- lateral malleolus and talus to navicular
- 3 parts
- often injured
What are the 3 parts of the lateral ligament?
- anterior talofibular lig (weak)
- posterior talofibular (strong)
- calcaneofibular (vertical)
What arches are maintained but the shape of bones, their relation to one another, and plantar fascia?
- medial longitudinal arch
- lateral longitudinal arch
- transverse arch
What are the characteristics of the medial longitudinal arch?
- along medial border
- from calcaneus to metatarsals 1-3
- absorbs shock (depresses during WBing)
- recoils when weight is removed
- can see pes cavus and planus
What are the characteristics of the lateral longitudinal arch?
- anterior part of calcaneus to metatarsals 4-5 and cubiod
- in contact with floor when standing (usually)
What are the characteristics of the transverse arch?
- side to side
- through cuneiforms and cuboid
What is a high arch called?
What is a low arch/flat feet called?
What is another name for spring lig, and what are its characteristics?
- calcaneonavicular lig
- goes from calcaneus to navicular
- short but wide
- supports medial side of longitudinal arch
What ligament contains a long and short one, and supports the lateral longitudinal arch?
What are the characteristics of the plantar aponeurosis (fascia)?
- goes from calcaneus to proximal phalanges along bottom of foot
- keeps posterior part from separating from back of foot
- "plantar fasciitis"
What bones make up the hindfoot?
- calcaneus and talus
- contacts ground first in gait, influences rest of foot
What bones make up the midfoot?
- navicular, cuboid and cuneiforms
- provides stabilty and mobility
What bones make up the forefoot?
- metatarsals and phalanges
- adapts to level ground
What occurs at the foot when the distal segment of the calcaneus is directed aay from the midline?
- calcaneal valgus
- pronated foot (collapse on arches)
What occurs at the foot when the distal segment of the calcaneus is directed toward the midline?