Exam 1

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jhondras
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156174
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Exam 1
Updated:
2012-05-30 22:36:50
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Microbiology
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Chapters 1, 3, 27, 28
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  1. Types of Microorganisms
    • 1) Prions
    • 2)Viruses
    • 3) Bacteria
    • 4)Algae
    • 5) Protozoa
    • 6) Heminths
  2. Nomenclature
    • - Mostly latin
    • -Invented by Linneaus (Sweedish taxonomist)
    • - Labels genus species (strain or biotype)
  3. Classification
    • Based on ribosomal (16S) RNA sequence because RNA mutates less quickly than DNA.
    • -used to tell how closely related organisms are
  4. Species
    organisms with greater than 97% relatedness in rRNA 16S sequence
  5. Hooke
    • -First observed cells in cork
    • -realized life was arranged in repeating units that he called cells
  6. Van Leeuwenhoek
    1st to observe live microorganisms using lenses and candlelight.
  7. Linnaeus
    Created nomenclature
  8. Jenner
    Created 1st vaccine by infecting boy with cow pox to see if it prevented small pox
  9. Golden Age
    1857-1914
  10. Pasteur
    • Father of Microbiology
    • -Disproved spontaneous generation
    • -Fermentation and Pasteurization
  11. Lister
    1st to do antiseptic surgery
  12. Koch
    Pure culture and germ theory of disease
  13. Petri
    created petri dish
  14. Hess
    created agar
  15. Fleming
    Created penicillin in 1928
  16. Areas of Discipline in Microbiology
    • -Bacteriology
    • -Virology
    • -Immunology
    • -Mycology (study of fungi)
    • -Parasitology
    • -Recombinant DNA Technology
  17. Good Microorganism stuff
    • -normal flora
    • -biogeochemical cycles-> all atoms were once other life forms (circle of life)
    • -Sewage treatment and water cycling
    • -Bioremediation
    • -Insect pest control
    • -recombinant DNA technology
    • -fermentation in food (cheese, salami, soy sauce, alcohol, chocolate, bread and more)
  18. Bad Microorganism stuff
    • -food spoilage
    • -infrastructure degredation (mold in houses, etc)
  19. Ugly Microorganism stuff
    Disease
  20. Bioflilms
    • thin film that protects bacteria.
    • -made of polysaccharides
    • -ex. plaque on teeth
  21. EID
    • Emerging Infectious Diseases
    • -less than 20-30 years old
  22. Examples of EID
    • -West Nile Virus
    • -HIV
    • -Avian Flue (H5N1)
    • -Ebola
    • -Mad Cow Disease
    • -Flesh Eating Bacteria
    • -H1N1
  23. Size of Bacteria
    most bacteria are 1x10 um
  24. Micrometer
    • um
    • 10-6m
  25. Nanometer
    • nm
    • 10-9 m
  26. Picometer
    • pm
    • 10-12 m
  27. Resolution
    How far apart 2 adjacent objects must be before a given lens shows them as distinct objects
  28. Resolution for light microscopes
    .2um
  29. Refractive Index
    The amount of light that a ray is bent traveling through a material (glass vs. air)
  30. Numerical Apperature
    Diameter of objective lens in relation to its focal length.
  31. Range of Light Microscopes
    200nm-10mm
  32. Brightfield Microscope
    • (type we use)
    • background is bright
  33. Darkfield Microscope
    background is dark/image is bright
  34. Phase Contrast
    Detailed images of internal structure of organisms
  35. DIC
    3D image of cells
  36. Flourescence Microscope
    stain has fluriochrome attached which causes speciment to glow
  37. Electron Scanning Microscope
    • beam of electrons instead of light
    • -looks at surface
    • -resultion 10nm
    • 1,000-10,000x magnification
  38. Electron Transmission Mircoscope
    • beam of electrons instead of light
    • -looks at slice of specimen
    • -resultion 2.5nm
    • up to 1,000,000x magnification
  39. Simple Stain
    makes specimen visible
  40. Gram Positive
    • thick peptidoglycan layer in cell wall
    • purple
  41. Gram Negative
    • Thicker lipopolysaccharide layer and thin peptidoglycan layer
    • decolorizes
    • pink
  42. Acid-Fast Stain
    ID's mycobacterium genes only
  43. Symbiosis
    a relationship between two or more organisms
  44. Mutualism
    both organisms are benefited from each other
  45. Examples of mutualism
    Rhinos and Birds

    mycorrhizae and plants

    humans and flora
  46. Commensialism
    One organism benefits and one is unaffected
  47. Examples of commensialism
    Mites and humans

    birds in tropics following ants

    barnicles sticking to organism
  48. Parasitism
    One organism benefits, one is hurt
  49. Examples of parasitism
    Disease

    Hunting
  50. Biogeochemical Cycling
    The recycling of chemical elements by microorganisms for use by other organisms
  51. The Carbon Cycle
  52. Nitrogen Cycle
  53. Eutrophication
    • Too many organic organisms in water supply
    • -Causes algea bloom
    • -Algae Die
    • -Anaerobic bacteria decompose algae and use up all of oxygen
    • -Fish and other life in area die.
  54. Primary Sewage Treatment
    • Physical
    • Screens out large particles in anaerobic sludge digestor. Solids are then incinerated, put in a landfill or used for agriculture. Liquids move onto stage 2
  55. Secondary Treatment
    • Biological
    • Mucrobes (aerobic bacteria) break down dissolved organic molecules in liquids
  56. Tertiary Treatment
    • Chemical
    • Liquids are disinfected and realeased into environment
  57. Coliforms
    indicates presence of fecal contamination in food or water
  58. Examples of Food Preservation
    • Canning
    • Salting
    • Fermenting
    • Smoking
    • Drying
    • Refridgeration
    • Freezing
    • Chemical Preservatives
    • Artificial Atmosphere
    • Radiation
    • High Pressure
  59. Examples of Fermented Foods
    • Cheese
    • yogurt
    • Butter
    • Salami
    • Pepperoni
    • Proscuitto
    • Olives
    • Pickles
    • Saurkraut
    • Soy Sauce
    • Beer/Wine/Liquor
    • Coffee
    • Cocoa
    • Breads
  60. Examples of Industrial Microbial Foundations
    • Amino Acids
    • Vitamins
    • Enzymes
    • Citric Acid
    • Pharmeceuticals
    • Baker's Yeast

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