: Bending parts at a joint so that the angle between them decreases and the parts come closer together (bending the lower limb at the knee).
: Straightening parts at a joint so that the angle between them increases and the parts move farther apart (straightening the lower limb at the knee).
: Excess extension of the parts at a joint, beyond the anatomical position (bending the head back beyond the upright position).
: Bending the foot at the ankle toward the shin (bending the foot upward).
: Bending the foot at the ankle toward the sole (bending the foot downward).
: Moving a part away from the midline (lifting the upper limb horizontally to form a right angle with he side of the body).
: Moving a part toward the midline (returning the upper limb from the horizontal position to the side of the body).
: Moving a part around an axis (twisting the head from side to side). Medial rotation involves movement toward the midline, whereas lateral rotation involves movement in the opposite direction.
Moving a part so that its end follows a circular path (moving the finger in a circular motion without moving the hand).
: Turning the hand so the palm is upward or facing anteriorly (in anatomical position).
: Turning the hand so the palm is downward or facing posteriorly (in anatomical position).Eversion: Turning the foot so the sole faces laterally.
- Inversion: Turning the foot so the sole faces medially.
- Protraction: Moving a part forward (thrusting the chin forward).
: Moving a part backward (pulling the chin backward).
: Raising a part (shrugging the shoulders).
: Lowering a part (drooping the shoulders).