Module 7 Lesson 6: Managing Virtual Machines - VMware vSphere 4.1 Study Flash Cards

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Module 7 Lesson 6: Managing Virtual Machines - VMware vSphere 4.1 Study Flash Cards
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Module 7 Lesson 6: Managing Virtual Machines - VMware vSphere 4.1 Study Flash Cards
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  1. Virtual Machine Snapshots

    What do vCenter Server snapshots allow/enable?
    Snapshots allow you to preserve the state of the virtual machine so that you can return to the same state repeatedly.
  2. Virtual Machine Snapshots

    How are Snapshots organized?
    Snapshots are organized as a linear process or as a process tree.
  3. Virtual Machine Snapshots

    Describe a linear process as it relates to vCenter Snapshots.
    In a linear process, each snapshot has one parent and one child, except for the last snaphot, which has no children.
  4. Virtual Machine Snapshots

    Describe a process tree as it relates to vCenter Snapshots.
    In a process tree, each snapshot has one parent, but one snapshot can have more than one child.
  5. Taking a Snapshot

    Name the Power states during which you can take a snapshot of a virtual machine?
    • Powered on
    • Powered off
    • Suspended
  6. Taking a Snapshot

    When using the vSphere client, what are the steps required to take a snapshot of a virtual machine in the inventory?
    To take a smapshot, right-click your virtual machine in the inventory and select Snapshot > Take Snapshot. In the Take Virtual Machine Snapshot dialog box, enter a snapshot name and description.
  7. Taking a Snapshot

    What does a VM snaphot capture?
    A snapshot captures the entire state of the virtual machine at the time you take the snapshot, including:

    • Memory state - content of the VM's memory
    • Setting state - VM settings
    • Disk state - state of all the VM's virtual disks
  8. Taking a Snapshot

    When taking a VM snapshot, the memory state is captured regardless of the power state of the VM. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. The memory state is captured only if the virtual machine is powered on and if you select the Snapshot the virtual machine's memory check box.
  9. Taking a Snapshot

    What is required to quiesce a VM's guest OS at the time you take a snapshot?
    • VMware Tools need to be installed
    • Select the Quiese quest file system check box.
  10. Taking a Snapshot

    Quiescing a VM at the time you take a snapshot quiesces the file system of the guest OS and the running applications. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. It quiesces the guest OS but not the running applications.
  11. Taking a Snapshot

    Snapshots of RDM physical compatibility mode disks are not supported. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True.
  12. Managing Snapshots

    What three things can you do (button options) in the Snapshot Manager?
    Delete - Commits the snapshot data to the parent snapshot and then removes the selected snaphot.

    Delete All - Commits all the intermediate snapshots before the current-state icon ("you are here") to the base disk and removes all snapshots for that virtual machine.

    Go to - Allows you to restore, or revert to, a particular snaphot. The snapshot that you restore becomes the current snaphot.
  13. Managing Snapshots

    When you revert to a snapshot, you return all items to the state that they were in at the time that you took the snapshot. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True. If you want the virtual machine to be suspended, powered on, or powered off when you start it, be sure the virtual machine is in the correct state when you take the snapshot.
  14. Managing Snapshots

    What are the steps to display the Snapshot Manager?
    To display the SnapShot Manager, right-click the virtual machine in the inventory an select Snapshot > Snapshot Manager.
  15. Virtual Machine Snapshot Files

    Each snapshot consists of a set of files. What are they? Name them and give a description of each.
    Memory state file - <VM_name>-Snapshot#.vmsn, where # is the next number in the sequence, starting with1. Holds the memory state at the time the snapshot was taken - size of the VM's maximum memory if memory is captured and smaller if not.

    Snapshot description file - <VM_name>-00000#.vmdk. This file is a small text file that contains information about the snapshot.

    Snapshot delta file - <VM_name>-00000#-delta.vmdk. This file contains the changes to the virtual disk's data at the time the snapshot was taken.
  16. Virtual Machine Snapshot Files

    What is the <VM_name>.vmsd file and when is it created?
    <VM_name>.vmsd is the snapshot list file and its created at the time the virtual machine is created.
  17. Virtual Machine Snapshot Files

    What information does the snapshot list file (<VM_name>.vmsd) maintain?
    It maintains information about all the snapshots that belong to a virtual machine. The information includes the name of the snapshot .vmsn file and the name of the virtual disk file.
  18. Managing Virtual Machines with vApp

    What is a VMware vApp?
    A vApp is a container object in the vCenter Server inventory for holding one or more virtual machines. It can be used to package and manage related applications.
  19. Managing Virtual Machines with vApp

    A vApp shares functionality with virtual machines like being powered on and off. Howerver, a vApp can not be cloned? True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. A vApp does share functionality with virtual machines like being powered on and off and can also be cloned.
  20. Managing Virtual Machines with vApp

    What is the distribution format for a vApp?
    The distribution format for a vApp is OVF.
  21. Managing Virtual Machines with vApp

    In the vSphere Client, in which views is a vApp represented?
    Host and Clusters and VM and Templates views.
  22. vApp Characteristics

    What are the steps to create a vApp?
    To create a vApp, use the New vApp wizard (File > New > vApp).
  23. vApp Characteristics

    After creating a vApp, certain settings can be modified. What are they?
    Resource allocation - Determines how CPU and memory should be allocated for the vApp.

    • IP allocation policy - Determines how IP addresses are allocated for the vApp.
    • - Fixed, where IP addresses are manually configured.
    • - Transient, where IP addresses are automatically allocated using IP pools from a specified range when the vApp is powered on.
    • - DHCP, where a DHCP server is used to allocate the IP addresses.

    Advanced settings - Product and vendor information, custom properties, and IP allocation.
  24. vApp Characteristics

    How can the start up and shut down order for virtual machines (and nested vApps) in a vApp be changed?
    The start up and shut down order can be changed by assigning virtual machines to groups. All entities in the same group are started before those in the next group. Shutdown is done in the reverse order. You can also specify delays and actions performed at startup and shutdown.
  25. Removing a Virtual Machine

    How many ways are there to remove a virtual machine and what are they?
    There are two ways to remove a virtual machine.

    • 1. Remove from Inventory
    • 2. Delete from Disk
  26. Removing a Virtual Machine

    What happens when you right click a VM in the vCenter Server inventory and select Remove from Inventory?
    The VM is unregistered from the host and vCenter Server. It does not delete the VM from the datastore. Virtual machine files remain at the same storage location, and the VM can be re-registered in the Datastore Browser.
  27. Removing a Virtual Machine

    What happens when you right click a VM in the vCenter Server inventory and select Delete from Disk?
    The VM is removed from vCenter Server. All virtual machine files, including the configuration file and virtual disk files, are permanently deleted from the datastore.
  28. Migrating Virtual Machines

    What is a virtual machine migration?
    A migration is the processs of moving a virtual machine from one host or datastore to another.
  29. Migrating Virtual Machines

    Name and describe the types of VM migrations.
    • Cold - Migrate a virtual machine that is powered off.
    • Suspended - Migrate a virtual machine that is suspended.
    • VMware vMotion - Migrate a virtual machine that is powered on.
    • Storage vMotion - Migrate a virtual machine's files, while the VM is powered on, to a different datastore.
  30. Migrating Virtual Machines


    Cloning a virtual machine is a form of migration. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. Copying (or cloning) a virtual machine creates a new virtual machine. Cloning is not a form of migration.
  31. Migrating Virtual Machines

    What is a Cold VM migration?
    The migration (moving) of a virtual machine that is powered off to a different host or datastore. Cold migrations are supported across datacenters.
  32. Migrating Virtual Machines

    What is a suspended VM migration?
    The migration (moving) of a virtual machine that is suspended to a different host or datastore. Suspended migrations are supported across datacenters.
  33. Migrating Virtual Machines

    What is a VMware vMotion migration?
    The migration (moving) of a virtual machine that is powered on to a different host. vMotion migrations are not supported across datacenters.
  34. Migrating Virtual Machines

    What is a Storage vMotion migration?
    The migration (moving) of a virtual machine that is powered on to a different datastore. Storage vMotion migrations are not supported across datacenters.
  35. Migrating Virtual Machines

    How many simultaneous vMotion, cloning, deployment, or Storage vMotion accesses to a single VMFS-3 datastore does vSphere support?
    vSphere supports a maximum of eight simultaneous vMotion, cloning, deployment, or Storage vMotion accesses to a single VMFS-3 datastore.
  36. Migrating Virtual Machines

    How many simultaneous vMotion, cloning, deployment, or Storage vMotion accesses to a single NFS or VMFS-2 datastore does vSphere support?
    vSphere supports a maximum of four simultaneous vMotion, cloning, deployment, or Storage vMotion accesses to a single NFS or VMFS-2 datastore.
  37. Migrating Virtual Machines

    A migration with vMotion involves how many accesses to a datastore?
    A migration with vMotion involves one access to the datastore.
  38. Migrating Virtual Machines

    A migration with Storage vMotion involves how many accesses to a datastore?
    A migration with vMotion involves two accesses. One access to the source datastore and one access to the destination datastore.
  39. Comparison of Migration Types

    Migration of a suspended virtual machine and migration wth vMotion can be refered to as what type of migration.
    Hot migration - because they allow migration of a VM without powering it off.
  40. Storage vMotion

    Storage vMotion is storage-type independent. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True
  41. Storage vMotion

    What storage types does Storage vMotion work across?
    • NFS datastores
    • VMFS datastores
    • Fibre Channel
    • iSCSI
    • Local SCSI storage
  42. Storage vMotion

    Name five uses for Storage vMotion.
    • 1. Moving VMs off storage device for maintenance/reconfiguration without VM downtime
    • 2. Redistribute storage load
    • 3. Evacuating end of life cycle physical storage.
    • 4. Storage tiering: migrating VMs from FC to iSCSI or NAS or within or between enclosures, or moving VMs to tiered storage with different service levels.
    • 5. Upgrading datastores without VMs downtime.
  43. Storage vMotion

    Storage vMotion is storage-type independent. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    True.
  44. Storage vMotion

    What storage does Storage vMotion work across?
    • Change host (vMotion) - Move the virtual machine to another host.
    • Change datastore (Storage vMotion) - Move the virtual machine's storage to another datastore.
    • Change both host and datastore (Cold Migration) - Move the virtual machine to another host and move its storage to another datastore (The virtual macine must be powered of to perform this function).
  45. Migrating Virtual Machines

    What are the names of the three radio button option types available on the Select Migration Type window of the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard?
    • Change host (vMotion) - Move the virtual machine to another host.
    • Change datastore (Storage vMotion) - Move the virtual machine's storage to another datastore.
    • Change both host and datastore (Cold Migration) - Move the virtual machine to another host and move its storage to another datastore (The virtual macine must be powered of to perform this function).
  46. Migrating Virtual Machines

    What are the steps to migrate a virtual machine with Storage vMotion?
    • 1. Right-click a powered-on virtual machine and select Migrate.
    • 2. In the Migrate Virtual Machine wizard, select Change datastore.
    • 3. Select the destination datastore.
    • 4. Select the disk format of the virtual disk.
  47. Migrating Virtual Machines

    When migrating a virtual machine using Storage vMotion (change datastore option), by default, what disk format will be used?
    By default, the disk format used will be the same format as the source's disk format.
  48. Storage vMotion in Action

    What happens in phase one of the Storage vMotion process when initiating a migration?
    vSphere copies all virtual machines files, except the virtual disk files, from the old virtual machine directory to a new directory on the destination datastore.
  49. Storage vMotion in Action

    What happens in phase two of the Storage vMotion process?
    Storage vMotion copies the contents fo the entire virtual disk file (or files) to the destination datastore, using "changed block tracking" to maintain data integrity during the migration process. Changed block tracking tracks changes to the disk so that Storage vMotion knows which regions of the disk include data.
  50. Storage vMotion in Action

    What happens in phase three of the Storage vMotion process?
    Storage vMotion queries the changed block tracking module to determine what regions of the disk were written to during the first iteration. It then performs a second iteration of copy, which copies regions that were changed during the first iteration ( several more iterations are possible).
  51. Storage vMotion in Action

    What happens in phase four of the Storage vMotion process?
    The virtual machine is quickly suspended and resumed so that it can begin using the virtual machine home directory and disk file or files on the destination datastore.
  52. Storage vMotion in Action

    What happens in phase five (last phase) of the Storage vMotion process?
    Before ESX/ESXi allows the virtual machine to start running again, the final change regions of the source datastore are copied to the destination and the source home and disks are removed.
  53. Storage vMotion Guidelines and Limitations

    What are the Storage vMotion Requirements and Limitations?
    • The host on which the virtual machine is running must have access to both the source and destination datastores.
    • Virtual machines with snapshots cannot be migrated using Storage vMotion.
    • Virtual machine disks must be in persistent mode or be raw device mappings (RDMs).
    • -----For virtual compatibility mode RDMs, you can migrate the mapping file or convert to thick-provisioned or thin provisioned disks during migration as long as the destination is not an NFS datastore.
    • ----- If you convert the mapping file, a new virtual disk is created and the contents of the mapped LUN are copied to this disk.
    • -----For physical compatibility mode RDMs, you can migrate the mapping file only.
    • Migration of virtual machines during VMware Tools installation is not supported.
    • The host on which the virtual machine is running must have a license that includes Storage vMotion.
    • ESX/ESXi 3.5 hosts must be licensed and configured for vMotion. ESX/ESXi 4.0 and later hosts do not require vMotion configuration in order to perform migration with Storage vMotion.
    • You cannot migrate virtual machines to a different host and a different datastore simultaneously, unless you power off the virtual machine.
  54. Storage vMotion Guidelines and Limitations

    Virtual machines with snapshots can be migrated using Storage vMotion. True or False?

    If False, Why?
    False. Moving snapshot systems to another datastore is subject/prone to the possibility of loss of data.

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