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What are 2 examples of multi-systemic diseases?
Liver disease (hepatic encephalopathy)
Prions, polio, and rabies are ____-specific diseases.
What are prions?
Polio is a _____ virus.
What 4 animals most commonly carry rabies?
Raccoons, foxes, skunks, and bats.
____ is an example of a zoonotic disease.
What can directly affect the CNS?
Bacteria, viruses, prions, protozoans, fungi, and rickettsiae
What results in potentially toxic pyogenic infection?
Infections of the nervous system
What are 3 common nervous system infections?
Meningitis: infection of meninges
Abscess: pus collection
Encephalitis: acute viral illness
What form of meningitis is bacterial and can be fatal without antibiotics?
Acute bacterial meningitis
What form of meningitis is viral with most cases being self-limiting?
Acute lymphatic meningitis
How can penicillin, a relatively large molecule, pass the blood brain barrier?
When the BBB is inflamed, larger molcules can pass through (vasodilation and acute cellular permeability)
What are 2 implications of spinal meningitis?
Increased ICP (unless area of inflammation is only on the spine)
Increased pressure on the nerves in the spine
What is bacterial meningits and some common symptoms?
Infection of the CSF, subarachnoid space, and ventricular system.
Fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, seizures, blurred vision, numbness
A ____ _____ is a focal defect filled with pus.
What causes brain abscesses? What are the clinical features?
May be caused by a wide variety of bacteria, possibly from endocarditis or a lung abscess.
Fever, increased ICP, variable neurologic deficits
What are the most common causes and symptoms of viral encephalitis?
- 1) Herpes simplex
- 2) Bird-born viruses
Fever, delirium, unconsciousness, seizures, paralysis, abnormal reflexes
What can widespread nerve cell degeneration, edema, and areas of necrosis with or without hemorrhage lead to?
What are degenerative disease?
Disorders characterized by spontaneous, progressive degeneration of neurons
What are 3 common degenerative diseases of the CNS?
Alzheimer's (most common cause of dementia)
Parkinson's (motor fxn disturbance)
Multiple slerosis (autoimmune demyelinating)
______ ______ is one of the most common causes of severe cognitive dysfunction in older persons.
Describe the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
Subtle signs at first, easily confused with depression
Patient becomes disoriented and confused
Results in complete disorientation and loss of language and other higher cortical functions
What are the 4 possible theories for the cause of Alzheimer's?
Problems with chromosomes 14, 19, and 21 (no single defect responsible for all cases)
Deposition of amyloid
Loss of neurotransmitter stimulation
What is Parkinson's disease?
Disturbance of motor fxn characterized by rigidity, stooped posture, gait disturbance, slowing of voluntary movement, characteristic tremor.
Can be due to trauma, toxic agents, vascular disease, or encephalitis
What disease involves a disturbance with the dopamine-secreting neurons?
What is multiple sclerosis?
An autoimmune, demyelinating disease that affects the CNS. T cells attack the myelin.
Heredity and environment play a role
Occurs in young adults (18 to 40)
What are the clinical features of MS?
Some Pts die w/i weeks to months while others have normal life span
Visual/speech disturbance, paresthesias, spasticity of extremities, gait abnormalities
Intelluctual function is not affected
What are the different functions of the urinary system?
Conserves beneficial compounds while eliminating waste.
Regulates blood volume and pressure (adj. water lost in urine; release of erythropoietin and renin)
Regulates plasma concentration of ions (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium)
Contributes to stabilization of pH
Assist liver in detoxification
How is urine formed?
Blood enters glomerulus where filtration occurs
The filtrate enters the renal tubule and gradually changes its composition as it travels
Renal tubules empty into a collection system
What does BUN stand for?
Blood Urea Nitrogen
Breakdown of creatine phosphate results in...?
What are common signs and symptoms of renal disease?
What are the different developmental abnormalities of the kidney?
Renal agenesis (unilater/bilateral)
Malposition (failure to ascend)