Patho 2 Unti 5-6

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Patho 2 Unti 5-6
2012-05-29 21:38:12

"Nervous System Disease & Infection" through "Developmental Abnormalitites"
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  1. What are 2 examples of multi-systemic diseases?
    Liver disease (hepatic encephalopathy)

  2. Prions, polio, and rabies are ____-specific diseases.
  3. What are prions?
    Infectious proteins
  4. Polio is a _____ virus.
  5. What 4 animals most commonly carry rabies?
    Raccoons, foxes, skunks, and bats.

    NOT rodents
  6. ____ is an example of a zoonotic disease.
  7. What can directly affect the CNS?
    Bacteria, viruses, prions, protozoans, fungi, and rickettsiae
  8. What results in potentially toxic pyogenic infection?
    Infections of the nervous system
  9. What are 3 common nervous system infections?
    Meningitis: infection of meninges

    Abscess: pus collection

    Encephalitis: acute viral illness
  10. What form of meningitis is bacterial and can be fatal without antibiotics?
    Acute bacterial meningitis
  11. What form of meningitis is viral with most cases being self-limiting?
    Acute lymphatic meningitis
  12. How can penicillin, a relatively large molecule, pass the blood brain barrier?
    When the BBB is inflamed, larger molcules can pass through (vasodilation and acute cellular permeability)
  13. What are 2 implications of spinal meningitis?
    Increased ICP (unless area of inflammation is only on the spine)

    Increased pressure on the nerves in the spine
  14. What is bacterial meningits and some common symptoms?
    Infection of the CSF, subarachnoid space, and ventricular system.

    Fever, headache, stiff neck, vomiting, seizures, blurred vision, numbness
  15. A ____ _____ is a focal defect filled with pus.
    Brain abscess
  16. What causes brain abscesses? What are the clinical features?
    May be caused by a wide variety of bacteria, possibly from endocarditis or a lung abscess.

    Fever, increased ICP, variable neurologic deficits
  17. What are the most common causes and symptoms of viral encephalitis?
    • 1) Herpes simplex
    • 2) Bird-born viruses

    Fever, delirium, unconsciousness, seizures, paralysis, abnormal reflexes
  18. What can widespread nerve cell degeneration, edema, and areas of necrosis with or without hemorrhage lead to?
    Viral encephalitis
  19. What are degenerative disease?
    Disorders characterized by spontaneous, progressive degeneration of neurons
  20. What are 3 common degenerative diseases of the CNS?
    Alzheimer's (most common cause of dementia)

    Parkinson's (motor fxn disturbance)

    Multiple slerosis (autoimmune demyelinating)
  21. ______ ______ is one of the most common causes of severe cognitive dysfunction in older persons.
    Alzeimer's disease
  22. Describe the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease.
    Subtle signs at first, easily confused with depression

    Patient becomes disoriented and confused

    Results in complete disorientation and loss of language and other higher cortical functions
  23. What are the 4 possible theories for the cause of Alzheimer's?
    Genetic factors

    Problems with chromosomes 14, 19, and 21 (no single defect responsible for all cases)

    Deposition of amyloid

    Loss of neurotransmitter stimulation
  24. What is Parkinson's disease?
    Disturbance of motor fxn characterized by rigidity, stooped posture, gait disturbance, slowing of voluntary movement, characteristic tremor.

    Can be due to trauma, toxic agents, vascular disease, or encephalitis
  25. What disease involves a disturbance with the dopamine-secreting neurons?
    Parkinson's disease
  26. What is multiple sclerosis?
    An autoimmune, demyelinating disease that affects the CNS. T cells attack the myelin.

    Heredity and environment play a role

    Occurs in young adults (18 to 40)
  27. What are the clinical features of MS?
    Some Pts die w/i weeks to months while others have normal life span

    Visual/speech disturbance, paresthesias, spasticity of extremities, gait abnormalities

    Intelluctual function is not affected
  28. What are the different functions of the urinary system?
    Conserves beneficial compounds while eliminating waste.

    Regulates blood volume and pressure (adj. water lost in urine; release of erythropoietin and renin)

    Regulates plasma concentration of ions (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium)

    Contributes to stabilization of pH

    Assist liver in detoxification
  29. How is urine formed?
    Blood enters glomerulus where filtration occurs

    The filtrate enters the renal tubule and gradually changes its composition as it travels

    Renal tubules empty into a collection system
  30. What does BUN stand for?
    Blood Urea Nitrogen
  31. Breakdown of creatine phosphate results in...?
  32. What are common signs and symptoms of renal disease?

  33. What are the different developmental abnormalities of the kidney?
    Renal agenesis (unilater/bilateral)

    Duplications (partial/complete)

    Malposition (failure to ascend)