Physiology Ch. 1-3

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Physiology Ch. 1-3
2012-05-29 22:47:48

Physiology Notes for Chapter 1 though 3
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  1. Physiology, what is it?
    The scientific study of how the body functions
  2. What are the two different approaches to Physiology?
    Teleological- explains "why" something is done

    Mechanistic- explains "how" something is done step by step
  3. What is a cell?
    A basic collection of molecules bound together and kept from the outside enviorment by a cell membrane.
  4. Tissue:
    A group of cells (typically similar)
  5. Cell Junction
    Holds cell together
  6. Extracellular Matrix (Matrix)
    Material created and secreted by the cells of a tissue that helps keep the cells together.
  7. Which types of tussue have only a small amount of extracellular matrix?
    • A. Nervous Tissue
    • B. Muscular Tissue
  8. What is a cell junction?
    The location where cells join together
  9. What are the three types of Cell junction?
    • Gap Junctions
    • Tight Junctions
    • Anchoring Junctions
  10. Gap Junctions:
    • Cell-cell junction
    • Connects the cytoplasm to cytoplasm with bridges
    • Allows Electircal and Chemical signals
  11. Tight Junctions:
    Prevents movement between linked cells unless selectively moved through cell

  12. Give an example of a Tight Junction
    The Blood Brain Barrier: barrier dividing the brain and blood
  13. Anchoring Junction (Desmosome):
    • Holds cells in place
    • Allows twisting and stretching
    • Cell-cell or cell-matrix
  14. What are the 4 basic types of tissue?
    • 1. Epithellial
    • 2. Connective
    • 3. Muscle
    • 4. Nervous
  15. Main job of Epithellial tissue?
    • To protect and seperate internal and external enviornments
    • Serves as a barrier
  16. What are two examples of Epithellial tissue?
    • Skin
    • Digestive Tract
    • Eye sockets
    • Nose
    • Mouth
  17. What is another function of Epitellial tissue?
    • To create and secrete chemicals
    • Sweat, saliva, hormones
  18. Characteristics of Epithellial Tissue:
    • One or more layers of connected cells
    • One side of layer faces the "free" side of cavity (lumen)
    • Other side connects to basement cavity
    • Found in "sheets" or "glands"
  19. Two types of glands:
    • Exocrine
    • Endocrine
  20. Exocrine glands:
    Ducts to the surface (sweat, saliva, milk)
  21. Endocrine Glands
    Under the surface pockets that create and release hormones into the bloodstream
  22. Connective Tissue
    • Provide structure support and serve as an anchor
    • Contain fibroblasts
  23. Types of Fibroblast Cells
    • Collogen
    • Elastin
    • Fibrillin
  24. Muscle Tissue
    • Contracts in response to specific stimulus
  25. What does it mean if something is "excitable"?
    A short reversable change in the membrane tissue
  26. Name the three types of muscle?
    • Skeletal
    • Cardiac
    • Smooth
  27. Which two types of muscle are involuntary?
    • Cardiac & Smooth
    • *controlled by the autonomic nervous system
  28. What do Skeletal and Cardiac muscles have in common?

    A. Both have a single nucleus
    B. Multinucleated
    C. Non-striated
    D. Striated
    D. Striated
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  29. What do Smooth and Cardiac muscles have in common?

    A. Both have a single nucleus
    B. Striated
    C. Multinucleated
    D. Non-striated
    A. Both have a single nucleus
    (this multiple choice question has been scrambled)
  30. Skeletal Muscle:
    • Voluntary control
    • Moves bone
    • Striated
    • Multinucleated
    • Cylindrical shape
  31. Cardiac Muscle
    • Involuntary control
    • Striated
    • Single Nucleus
    • Branched
  32. Smooth Muscle
    • Involuntary control
    • Non-striated
    • Single Nucleus
    • Spindle shaped
  33. Nervous tissue is comprised of:
    • Glial Cells (about 90%)
    • Neurons (about 10%)
  34. Glial Cells
    • Part of the nervous tissue
    • Support neurons (Nurse Cells)
  35. Neurons:
    • Send signals to communicate
    • -chemically and electrically
  36. Organs
    A collection of multiple tissue types that perform a function
  37. Organ Systems
    A collection of organs that perform a specific task.
  38. Name all 11 Organ Systems:
    • Skeletal
    • Muscular
    • Respritory
    • Digestive
    • Endocrine
    • Integumentary
    • Musculoskeletal
    • Nervous
    • Reproductive
    • Excretory
    • Immune